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This page describes how to configure virtual machines in datacenters and public cloud regions. After you create your virtual appliance and add virtual machines, you can configure virtual machines before deployment or reconfigure after deployment. To toggle the tabs on and off, click the Tab view button at the top of this wiki page. 

Prepare to configure a virtual machine

Abiquo 3.8.1 introduces hot-add and hot-reconfigure of virtual machines on ESXi hypervisors. If your virtual machine template and VM operating system support hot-add and hot-reconfigure, you can configure the virtual machine while it is powered on.

 

After deployment, power off the virtual machine before you reconfigure. Abiquo recommends that you configure the network before you deploy. You can configure captured virtual machines in the same way as virtual machines created in Abiquo.

  1. If the virtual appliance is deployed, select the virtual machine and power it off by clicking the shutdown button on the control panel. If your guest supports graceful shutdown, for example, if you have installed the guest tools, select the Shut down option.

    Otherwise, you can connect directly to the virtual machine and perform a graceful shutdown. Or if this option is not successful, or your virtual machine is already prepared with all services shut down, you can select the Power off option.
  2. When the virtual machine is powered off, its status bar should turn red.
  3. Click the edit button to modify the virtual machine configuration.

    Edit the configuration as described in this manual. Note that some of the virtual machine configuration tabs may or may not be visible, depending on your datacenter configuration and privileges.
  4. After you make your changes click Save. The cloud platform orchestrator will reconfigure the virtual machine. 
  5. Deploy or power on the virtual machine.
Virtual machine names and power on order

Virtual machines will be powered on in ascending alphanumerical order. Thus it may be helpful to number your virtual machines in front of the their names. As an example, 1_WebServer will power on before 2_Database. You should remember that although the virtual machines will be powered on in this order, there is no guarantee that the machines will finish powering on in the same order.

Infrastructure updates

The periodic infrastructure check will detect direct changes to the virtual machines (CPU, RAM and hard disk) and these changes will be reflected in platform statistics and accounting, as well as the VM general configuration page.

 

Edit VM general information in datacenters

In Abiquo 3.6, the DVD functionality has been removed and replaced with the ISO functionality.

Field

Description

UUID

The Unique Identifier of the virtual machine

Name

The Name of the virtual machine. Defaults to the VM template name

Owner

The Enterprise that owns the virtual machine

CPU

The number of CPUs. You may only change this value when the machine is undeployed or stopped or with v3.8.2+ hot add/reconfigure. Requires privilege Edit virtual machine details privilege. The virtual datacenter and enterprise allocation limits will be checked when you enter this number. The number of CPUs available in the hypervisors will be checked when the machine is deployed or restarted. Read only value in public cloud.

RAM

The amount of RAM. Select MB or GB. You may only change this value when the machine is undeployed or stopped, or with v3.8.2+ hot add/reconfigure. Requires privilege Edit virtual machine details privilege. The virtual datacenter and enterprise allocation limits will be checked when you enter this number. The number of CPUs available in the hypervisors will be checked when the machine is deployed or restarted. Read only value in public cloud

Enable Remote AccessHypervisors with Remote Access Support only. Enable remote access on this virtual machine. If the virtual machine was created without remote access enabled on the hypervisor, it will be enabled. If you disable remote access, the configuration will remain but you cannot access it via the eye icon.

Remote access

Remote Access to the virtual machine by VNC may be Not Available, usually because the machine is not deployed. Otherwise, if you have the View datacenter details privilege, the Remote Access IP and Port will be displayed.

Cloud Admin can enable remote access for the Abiquo platform in Configuration view for machines created after it is enabled. The Remote Access IP address is the Remote Access IP you entered when you created the physical machine or the address of the Remote Access Proxy Server.

Remote Access Password

If Remote Access is Available, you can set the password for Remote Access and mark the checkbox to Show password. Changes to the password will be effective immediately for the connection to this machine through the eye button on the VM control panel

Virtual Machine Keymap

ESX/ESXi only - If Remote Access is Available, you can select the keyboard type for remote access through the eye button

Description

A description of the virtual machine

Enable remote access

On hypervisors that do not support remote access, the eye icon may provide details about how to connect to your virtual machine. Abiquo does not support remote access through Docker attach.

If remote access to virtual machines is enabled for your datacenter in Configuration View and compatible with your hypervisor in the platform, you can enable or disable remote access on your virtual machine. Remote access details are only available for deployed virtual machines if you have the View datacenter details privilege.

Configure a remote access password

If remote access is enabled, you should set a remote access password for the virtual machine.

By default Abiquo will generate a random password for your virtual machine. Tick the checkbox to show the password.  You can change the password but it must be:

  • a maximum of 8 characters
  • alphanumeric characters only, i.e. [a..z][A..Z][0..9]. 

This password will be required to enter the shell window through the eye button  on the left of the virtual machine control panel. 

Run the user interface in the Firefox browser for best remote access compatibility


If you delete the password, the screen requesting the password will not appear.

if you have the administrator privilege to View datacenter details, you will see the IP address and Port for Remote Access as shown in the above screenshot. Without this privilege they will not be displayed for your virtual machine.

Deleting the remote access password in ESX hypervisors

On ESX hypervisors, if you set a password and later delete it, the password will be blank, not null. The screen requesting the password will always appear, even if the password is blank, and you should press <Enter> to continue.

If the virtual machine is deployed when you change the password, the change will be applied when you Save the virtual machine.

Edit VM general information in public cloud

Do NOT change the Abiquo tag on the Amazon Instance

Do not change the Abiquo platform's tag on an Amazon instance in Amazon or you will break the link between Abiquo and the virtual machine. If the link is broken, you will not be able to manage the virtual machine with Abiquo.

 

Field

Description

UUID

The Unique Identifier of the virtual machine

Name

The Name of the virtual machine. Defaults to the VM template name

Owner

The Enterprise that owns the virtual machine

CPU

The number of CPUs. The value in public cloud is set by the hardware profile and you cannot modify it here

RAM

The amount of RAM in MB or GB. The value in public cloud is set by the hardware profile and you cannot modify it here

Description

A description of the virtual machine

Hardware profileThe cloud provider's hardware profile for the virtual machine. See cloud provider documentation for specifications and pricing. You can only change the hardware profile of a deployed virtual machine in some cloud providers, such as AWS, and only when the virtual machine is powered off.
CPU HW profileThe number of CPUs provided by the selected hardware profile. Read only value
RAM HW profileThe amount of RAM provided by the selected hardware profile. Read only value

 

Configure Network

Power Off to Edit Network

If the virtual machine is deployed, power off the virtual machine to edit the network.

Abiquo offers the following types of networks for virtual machines:

  • private networks with private IP addresses that only allow your virtual machines to communicate with others inside the same virtual datacenter.
  • public networks with Internet addressable public IP addresses.
  • external networks that belong to an enterprise and allow virtual machines to communicate with machines outside their virtual datacenter.
  • unmanaged networks are external networks with IP addresses allocated outside of Abiquo, so you cannot configure them in Abiquo.

You can add your virtual machines to the networks that have been configured for your datacenter and virtual datacenter. For each virtual machine, your administrator may limit:

  • the number of network interfaces 
  • the number of network interfaces on the same VLAN 

Click the configuration button to edit the virtual machine network configuration.

Default Network Configuration

Each virtual datacenter has a default network. The default network may be of any network type, as configured by your administrator. If you do not configure a network interface for your virtual machine, when you deploy the machine, the platform will automatically assign an address in the default network.

In the Virtual Machine Configuration popup, the Network tab lists all the network interfaces (NICs) that will be attached to the virtual machine. The NICs are shown in attachment order. You can drag and drop to change this order.

Create IP addresses

For a private network, you can create a new IP address from the Network tab. You can create a new NIC using a new or existing IP address.

To create NICs and attach them to a virtual machine, you can select a network and depending on the network type:

To:

Action

Network Type

Notes

  PrivateExernalPublic 
Create a new NIC

Drag and drop IP address to VM

(tick)(tick)(tick)

 

Create a new IP address and NICClick + button(tick)  

The user must enter an address that does not already exist in the network

Automatically generate a new IP address and NICDrag and drop "Auto-generated IP" to VM(tick)  The platform will create a new IP address. If the platform cannot create a new address, it will throw an error
Automatically assign a new IP address and NIC--(tick)(tick)(tick)

At deploy, the platform will use an existing IP address or if none are available, it will create a new IP address. The platform will not use a gateway IP address. If the platform cannot create a new IP address, it will throw an error. For external and public networks, the platform will only use a purchased or available IP address. If there are no addresses available, the platform will throw an error

 

Edit NICs
 ToActionNotes

Remove a NIC from the virtual machine

Click X beside a NICYou cannot remove a NIC if it has the default gateway address

Reorder network interfaces

Drag and drop NICs into order 
Default Gateway

In the Default gateway box, select an address to be the default gateway of the virtual machine

  • Change the gateway by selecting a new one from the list
  • You can click the X delete button to remove the default gateway
  • If you change the NICs on the VM, check the gateway because it may not function and you won't be able to save your VM until the gateway is valid.
Create a New IP Address

You can create a new IP address from the virtual machine configuration screen.

There are two options here: manual IP address entry for supported networks and auto-generated IP address.

To create a new IP, select the network, then click the + button. 

OR to request a new, automatically generated IP address, drag and drop the "Auto-generated IP" to the VM. This IP address will be created and assigned at deploy time.

If you do not add any NICs before you deploy the machine, the platform will add a NIC on the default network, if one is available, as part of the deploy process.

Create a New Network Interface

To add a network interface to the virtual machine, in the left pane click the tab of the network type: Private, External or Public and select the VLAN. Then drag and drop the network address into the IPs pane on the right. You can also use one of the methods to create IP addresses that are described above.

Select a Default gateway. Click Save to confirm this change.

If the virtual appliance is deployed, the virtual machine will automatically reconfigure.

Reordering Network Interfaces

You can drag and drop network interfaces to change their order. Click Save to confirm your changes.

Edit Public Cloud Network Configuration

You can edit the network configuration of an AWS machine if it is:

  • Saved but not deployed
  • Deployed and powered off

Click on the Network tab to edit the network configuration.

Do Not Rename the Amazon Instance

Do not change the virtualmachine tag of an AWS instance in AWS or you will break the link between Abiquo and the virtual machine. If the link is broken, you will not be able to manage the virtual machine with Abiquo. 

Add an Elastic IP as a Public IP
  • Your AWS account will have a limit for Elastic IPs independent of any Abiquo public IP limit for your virtual datacenter
  • Add the Elastic IP to the virtual datacenter before you add it to a VM
  • You can only add ONE Elastic IP to each virtual machine in Abiquo
  • You cannot move the Elastic IP to another virtual machine 

To add a public IP to your VM:

  • First obtain the public IP for your virtual datacenter from the public cloud provider
  • Edit the virtual machine configuration
  • Select the Network tab
  • Select the Public page
    • you will see the IPs that are already allocated to your enterprise in the virtual datacenter. You can select from these IPs.
  • Drag and drop the IP address into the network interfaces list
  • AWS charges for Elastic IPs that are allocated but NOT USED by running virtual machines, so:
    • Deploy or power on your VM as soon as possible after adding an Elastic IP
    • When you undeploy your VM, remember to remove the Elastic IP from your VM and remove it from your VDC
  • Elastic IPs are counted in your Abiquo Public IP limits

A public IP should be displayed as shown in the following screenshot.  The public IP is not part of any Abiquo VLAN.

 

 

Remove a Public IP

To remove a public IP from your virtual machine, power off or undeploy the virtual machine and click the X button near the IP address.

The public IP will still be assigned to your virtual datacenter.

Your public cloud provider may charge for a public IP that is assigned to a virtual datacenter but not in use.

When you undeploy the virtual machine, remember to remove the public IP after you undeploy the virtual machine because AWS charges for public IPs that are not in use.

To ensure that your public cloud provider does not charge you for the public IP, remove it from your virtual datacenter. The public IP will be released and you cannot add it to another machineWhen you add another public IP to your virtual datacenter and virtual machine, there is no guarantee that it will have the same IP address.

Configure Storage

Datacenter feature

Storage is only available in virtual machines deployed in datacenters, not in public cloud regions.

In Abiquo 3.8.3+, to set a disk controller type or controller, you must have the Manage virtual storage controller privilege. If you do not have this privilege, you cannot add a volume or hard disk when setting the controller type or controller.

Power Off to Configure Storage

Power off the virtual machine to configure storage unless you are using hot-reconfigure

The Storage tab of the Edit virtual machine popup contains a list of a the storage elements attached to the virtual machine in boot order.

Virtual machines can have the following storage:

  • volumes of managed storage

  • hard disks on the hypervisor datastore

  • ISO hard disks on datastore DVD drives

The storage available to you in your virtual datacenter will depend on the configuration of the platform. The following screenshot shows volumes, virtual hard disks and an ISO disk. Any volumes that are available in the virtual datacenter are displayed in the left pane.

When you select the virtual machine in the virtual appliance, you can see the details of the attached storage.

Attach Volumes of Managed Storage

The volumes pane on the left of the Storage tab displays a list of volumes available to you in the virtual datacenter. These are persistent storage in external storage devices, not the hypervisor datastores.

This tab lists the volumes that were created in the virtual datacenter as explained in Manage Virtual Storage and Manage External Storage. You must have the Assign volumes to virtual machines privilege in order to configure virtual storage.

To attach a volume to your virtual machine, drag and drop it from the volume list to the main Storage pane. 

To change the boot order, click the pencil button beside the Name and edit the boot order number.

After editing the virtual machine, click Save. If the virtual machine is deployed, it will be automatically reconfigured.

If a volume does not attach properly but you do not see an error message, a problem may have occurred in the storage device outside of Abiquo. Contact your Administrator to resolve this problem.

 

Create Hard Disks on Hypervisor Datastores

You can create secondary hard disks on the hypervisor datastore on all hypervisors. These hard disks are not persistent: they will be deleted from the hypervisor when you undeploy the virtual machine. Hard disks are included when you create an instance or a persistent virtual machine. These hard disks can be attached to a SCSI or IDE controller on the virtual machine.

Undeploy deletes hard disks

The hard disks you create on this tab and all data on them will be deleted from the hypervisor when the virtual machine is undeployed.

 To maintain data after you undeploy:

  • create an instance of the hard disks, from which you an also create a persistent template

  • instead use persistent virtual storage volumes as described in Attach Volumes of Managed Storage

 The hard disks will also be destroyed when you remove them from the virtual machine.

Administrators can control the display of the Hard Disk Tab in Configuration View#General Tab and with the Manage virtual machine hard disks privilege. And they can force additional hard disks to use the same controller type and controller as the primary template disks with the forcesamecontrollertype property as described in Abiquo Configuration Properties # Storage. Administrators can control whether users can make changes to controller type and controller using the Manage virtual machine storage controller privilege. Without this privilege a user cannot add a hard drive when they have set the controller type or controller.

 

To add a hard disk:

  1. Click the add button at the top right of the Storage tab

  2. Select Assign virtual disk

Field

Description

Size

Enter the size of the hard disk and select the units

Datastore tierSelect the datastore tier with the appropriate storage service level
Controller type

The administrator can force the use of the same controller type and controller as for the primary template disk using the abiquo.storage.forcesamecontrollertype property.

If you have the Manage virtual storage controller privilege, you can edit the controller type and controller. Without this privilege you cannot add a hard drive with controller type and controller settings.

Select from SCSI or IDE on all hypervisors. Also VIRTIO on KVM
The default controller may be

  • On ESXI, the default controller is IDE
  • On all other hypervisors, the default is SCSI
Controller

The administrator can force the use of the same controller type and controller as for the primary template disk using the abiquo.storage.forcesamecontrollertype property.

If you have the Manage virtual storage controller privilege, you can edit the controller type and controller. Without this privilege you cannot add a hard drive with controller type and controller settings.

The user can create multiple SCSI controllers but only one controller of each kind.

The Default value is: VirtualLsiLogicController or the controller defined by the system administrator. This controller is used if a virtual machine is deployed with no SCSI controller or SCSI disks (e.g. system disk, volumes or other hard disks).

The user can enter text in the Controller field and these controllers would be created depending on if the text contains:

  • "paravirtual": ParaVirtualSCSIController
  • "bus": VirtualBusLogicController
  • "sas": VirtualLsiLogicSASController
  • none of the above: VirtualLsiLogicController

Name

The name of the hard disk

From Abiquo 3.8.3 onwards, to set a hard disk controller type or controller, you must have the Manage virtual storage controller privilege. If you do not have this privilege, you can only add a hard disk without setting the controller type or controller.

  • ESXi
    • On ESXi Abiquo only supports one SCSI controller per virtual machine. If you attempt to add more SCSI disks with different controllers, the controllers will be ignored
    • After a SCSI controller has been added, it cannot be changed
    • If a machine is deployed with no SCSI controller or disks, the platform will create your provider's default controller

 

Add an ISO Disk to Install Software

To add an ISO disk from the Apps library to install software on your VM:

  1. Click the + button at the top right of the Storage tab
  2. Choose Select an ISO disk
  3. From the Apps library browser window that opens, select an ISO disk 
  4. Click Save

Abiquo will create a DVD hard disk on the hypervisor datastore that contains the ISO disk. You cannot resize an ISO hard disk.

Detach Volumes and Delete Hard Disks

You can detach volumes and delete hard disks:

  • If you delete a hard disk, it will be destroyed
  • If you detach a volume it will be available in the virtual datacenter again.

Detach iSCSI volumes on VMware hypervisors

You can only detach an iSCSI external storage volume on ESX or ESXi hypervisors if the VM does not have VMware snapshots. VMware snapshots may be part of your cloud provider's backup strategy. If you cannot detach a volume as expected, please contact your System Administrator.

To delete a hard disk, which will destroy all data, or to detach a volume of virtual storage:

  1. Select the hard disk or volume

  2. Click the detach/delete button at the top right of the Storage tab

  3. Click Yes to confirm the delete or detach operation

  4. Click Cancel to discard changes or Save to reconfigure the virtual machine in the hypervisor

The following screen capture shows a volume that has been detached and is now available again in the virtual datacenter.

Change Storage Boot Order
  • Abiquo recommends that you change the boot order by itself, without making any other disk configuration changes at the same time
  • Disk hot-reconfigure on ESXi only supports changes to the boot order as part of disk add or disk remove operations
    • Other changes made in Abiquo will not be implemented until the virtual machine is powered off and reconfigured

To change the boot sequence of a storage element on a virtual machine, click the pencil icon beside the storage element.

Enter the new boot order number in the box and click OK.

Change the order of the other disks in the same way, as required.

Ensure that:

  • each disk has a unique number in the boot order 
  • the boot order is contiguous and there are no gaps between disk numbers

Click Save to reconfigure the virtual machine with the new order.

To boot from an ISO disk, change the boot order and set it to position 0.

 

Modify Volumes

In Abiquo 3.8.1+ you can edit volumes to modify the controller type and controller.

AttributeDescription
Controller type

Select from SCSI or IDE on all hypervisors. Also VIRTIO on KVM
If the disk controller type not entered, Abiquo will use the disk controller from the hypervisor, which is IDE on ESXi and KVM.

Controller

On ESXi only

Abiquo 3.8.1+: The user can create multiple SCSI controllers but only one controller of each type

The Default value is: VirtualLsiLogicController or the controller defined by the system administrator. This controller is used if a virtual machine is deployed with no SCSI controller or SCSI disks.

The user can enter text in the Controller field and these controllers will be created depending on if the text contains:

  • "paravirtual": ParaVirtualSCSIController
  • "bus": VirtualBusLogicController
  • "sas": VirtualLsiLogicSASController
  • none of the above: VirtualLsiLogicController
Modify Hard Disks

You can edit hard disks to modify some of their characteristics, such as the name and size. You can expand a virtual machine primary system disk or secondary hard disk at deploy time or in an existing deployed VM on demand.

You may need additional space on a hard disk, for example, to add service packs/hotfixes, logs, increased swap disk space or temporary system disk space, or for growing installed applications.

From the Edit virtual machine dialog, you cannot edit a volume. To edit and resize a volume, go to the Virtual datacenters view on the Volumes tab. See Manage Virtual Storage in Datacenters

Using Expanded Disks

Expanding a disk can damage the data or operating system installed on the disk. You may need to apply additional operating system tools or processes before you can use an expanded disk.

Resize iSCSI volumes on VMware

On ESX or ESXi hypervisors to resize disks you must have:

  • iSCSI disks on SCSI controllers with thin provisioning
  • a VM without VMware snapshots. 
    • VMware snapshots may be part of your cloud provider's backup strategy. If you cannot resize a volume as expected, please contact your System Administrator.

 

To edit a hard disk:

  1. Select the hard disk

  2. Click the pencil edit button at the top right of the Storage popup

  3. Make your changes. To resize a disk, enter a new size, which must be  larger  than the current size

    • ESX
      • If a machine is deployed with no SCSI controller or disks, a default LSI logic controller will be created
      • After a SCSI controller has been added, it cannot be changed
      • Abiquo only supports one SCSI controller per virtual machine. If you attempt to add more SCSI disks with different controllers, the controllers will be ignored
  4. Click Save on the Edit virtual disk size popup

  5. Click Save on the Edit virtual machine dialog to reconfigure the virtual machine

 

Configure Virtual Machine Backups

Create a manual backup now

If manual backups are enabled for the datacenter, when the User edits the virtual machine configuration, Abiquo will display the Backup now button in the top right-hand corner of the of the Backup tab.

When the user clicks this button, the Abiquo UI will request request an immediate backup through the Abiquo API.

 

Configure Backup Type

If you have the privilege to Manage virtual machine backup configuration, you can set the basic backup configuration for your virtual machines. This means you can choose the backup policy and the disks.

  1. Open the Backup tab to the Backup policies page
  2. Select from the list of backup policies
  3. Click Show details
     
Enter a Path for Filesystem Backup

For a filesystem backup, enter the folder or directory path to back up.

Select Disks for Snapshot or Complete Backup

  • Click Select Disks
  • Select the disks for backup 
    • The disks are shown in sequence order
    • The system disk is the first disk in the list

Configure Backup Schedule

The administrator can set the date and time in the backup policy or they can require the user to set the date and time.

To enter backup date(s) and time(s), you must have the privilege to Manage virtual machine backup schedule, and you must configure the exact date and time of a backup.

If the backup policy requires date(s) and time(s), then you must have the privilege to Manage virtual machine backup schedule. If you see an error that you do not have enough permissions, contact your administrator in order to use this backup or backup policy.

  

Backup Times

Abiquo uses ISO 8601 and datacenter owners should inform users of the time standard used in the datacenter

Time zones in ISO 8601 are represented as local time (with the location unspecified), as UTC, or as an offset from UTC


Screenshot: The administrator has configured backup schedule

Screenshot: The user must configure the backup schedule

 

View the Results of Latest Backups

The results shown may vary depending on your datacenter's backup system. Backups with a status of "done" or "completed" will have a Restore link enabled in the Action column. 

 Restore a Backup

The restore feature is controlled by the Restore virtual machine backups privilege, which by default is assigned to the roles CLOUD_ADMIN and ENTERPRISE_ADMIN.

To create a restore request:

  1.  Open the Latest backups tab
  2. Click Restore beside a completed backup

View the Status or Result of Backup Restore

To display the status of the restore, as well as any other information supplied by your datacenter's backup integration, open the Restore requests tab

After the restore is completed, the status may be set in the restore element and it will be shown.

The restore Status may be set to "success" or "failed" as shown below.

Request a Consecutive Restore

If your environment allows it, you may request that a backup be restored more than once. If the Restore requests Status is success or failed, Abiquo will reactivate the Restore link and you can click the Restore link to request a new restore of the same backup.

Backup Events

For users the backup feature will produce the events described in the Events View#Virtualmachine under METADATA_MODIFIED and RESTORE_BACKUP.

The Events page on the Backup tab will display events from backup integrations.

Configure Bootstrap Scripts

In Abiquo you can insert UNIX bootstrap scripts to execute on first boot of your UNIX virtual machines in public cloud. You can use this feature if you have the "Edit virtual appliance details" privilege.
Cloud provider support

The bootstrap script feature is available in all public cloud providers supported by Abiquo.

VM support

(tick) Bootstrap scripts can be used on all UNIX VMs
(error) Windows virtual machines are not yet supported

VM access

You must open port 22 on the virtual machine. In the cloud providers that support Firewalls (such as AWS, HP Cloud and Google Compute Engine), you can use the Abiquo firewalls feature to allow access. 

Abiquo will connect to the virtual machine via SSH and upload the bootstrap script before running it.  If you have a public SSH key configured in Abiquo, it will also be installed on the virtual machine to allow easy access to it.

Depending on the features supported by the cloud provider, Abiquo might create a key pair to be used to access the virtual machine, or might use the default (well known) credentials for the image.

The only requirement is that the virtual machines that are being configured have a public IP address (or a reachable IP address) and have a running SSH server and the port 22 accessible. Abiquo will use an SSH connection to the virtual machine to run the bootstrap script on it.

Add a bootstrap script for a virtual machine

Edit the virtual machine, and open the Bootstrap script tab. Paste your script in the text box.

Do not use any headers, such as #!/bin/sh, because your script will be included in an Abiquo wrapper bash script


With this feature you can use your own scripts or tools such as Ansible to configure your virtual infrastructure. See also http://www.abiquo.com/2014/05/14/abiquo-dynamic-inventory-plugin-for-ansible/

Implementation

Abiquo will wrap the user's bootstrap script in another bash script. This is done to provide a way to store the output and the errors that the script might generate, so users can troubleshoot it if something does not work as expected. Therefore you should not include script headers because they are already included in the wrapper script. Abiquo names the wrapper script  "abiquo-bootstrap". Abiquo will upload the script to the virtual machine and leave a symbolic link to the script location in the user's home directory. 

Check script status and output

From your home directory, use the following commands to see the output and  status of the script:

  • ./abiquo-bootstrap status - Shows the PID of the bootstrap process (or nothing if it has finished).
  • ./abiquo-bootstrap stdout - Shows the full standard output for the bootstrap process.
  • ./abiquo-bootstrap stderr - Shows the full error output for the bootstrap process.
  • ./abiquo-bootstrap tail - Shows the last lines of the standard output for the bootstrap process.
  • ./abiquo-bootstrap tailerr - Shows the last lines of the error output for the bootstrap process.
  • ./abiquo-bootstrap exitstatus - Shows the exit code of the bootstrap process (0 usually means success).

 

Assign Firewalls

If firewalls are offered in your datacenter and firewalls have been created in your virtual datacenter, then you can assign firewalls to your virtual machines.

To assign a firewall from the virtual datacenter to a virtual machine:

  1. Edit the virtual machine and open the Firewalls tab. 
  2. Mark the required firewalls with a tick in the Firewall policies checklist
  3. Click Save



  •  In Abiquo 3.8, check the application of private cloud firewalls with your cloud provider. Private cloud firewalls might ONLY apply to load balancers. These firewalls DO NOT apply to virtual machines, even though you can assign them.

 

Remove a firewall from a virtual machine

To remove a firewall from a virtual machine:

  1. Edit the virtual machine and open the Firewalls tab
  2. Remove the tick beside the firewall in the Firewall policies checklist
  3. Click Save

Configure Chef

Chef is an infrastructure automation product that uses configuration recipes. You can use Abiquo Chef Integration to deploy a virtual machine that will then configure itself using Chef recipes and roles. Chef-enabled virtual machines are marked with the Chef logo .

Configure Chef Recipes and Roles

The Chef tab is enabled if the enterprise is Chef-enabled and the virtual machine template is Chef-enabled. Before the virtual machine is deployed, you can select from the available roles and recipes. These will be added to the machine's runlist. When the machine is deployed it will download the roles and recipes, and run them in order. Click the Chef tab. By default on this tab you can select roles. Mark the "Select individual components" checkbox to select individual recipes too. The selected recipes will be added to the Virtual Appliance's runlist in order of selection.

To change the order of the runlist, click on the pencil button beside a role or recipe, then edit the order number, then click OK.

Change the Order of Roles and Recipes After Deployment

To change the runlist order after deployment click on the pencil button, then edit the order number, then click OK. The Abiquo Chef Agent will connect to the Chef Server and update the runlist.

See also Configuring and Using Abiquo Chef Integration in the Abiquo HOWTOs and Troubleshooting Abiquo Chef Integration in the Administrator's Guide.

Configure Chef Attributes

The Abiquo Chef integration now supports Chef attributes.  Abiquo can pass configuration attributes to Chef for your recipes. You can find out what attributes are available from the Chef recipe configuration files. See http://docs.opscode.com/chef/essentials_node_object.html 
  • Edit the virtual machine 
  • Open the Chef tab at the Attributes page.
  • Enter the parameters for each recipe in JSON format. 
    • The Chef attributes must be enclosed in "{ }". You must enter a valid JSON document and in version 3.8.5+, Abiquo will validate this.
    • Abiquo does not validate these attributes, so check them carefully.
  • Click Save
    • Note: this will save the entire virtual machine configuration

Assign Load Balancers

To assign a virtual machine to a load balancer, select the load balancer from the list.

Configure Metrics

If you have the privilege to Manage virtual machine monitoring and it is configured in your virtual datacenter, you can enable the option to fetch builtin metrics from the hypervisor or public cloud region.

Enable Monitoring and Metrics

To enable virtual machine monitoring and metrics, work with a virtual machine that is powered off or undeployed.

Edit the virtual machine and go to the Monitoring tab.

Mark the fetch metrics checkbox. This will retrieve all metrics for the virtual machine.

Select from the available options, for example, for AWS, you can select detailed or basic monitoring.

The functionality and list of available metrics depend on the underlying virtualization technology and the platform configuration.

Select the individual metrics you would like to display for your virtual machine. Abiquo will always retrieve all metrics, so you can change the metrics to display at any time. And you can use any metric for alarms and alerts, even you do not display it.

Display Metrics for a Virtual Machine

On the virtual machine icon, click the Monitoring symbol to display the metrics. 

The metrics panel will open.

Select the refresh button  to update the display of a metric.

Select the filter button  to configure the display of the metric.

Set the

  • Granularity, which is how often the metric is sampled
  • Statistic, which determines how the raw values will be processed over time
  • "Last" period, which is how long the display will look behind at the processed data.
  • Metric dimensions
    • For metrics with more than one possible element being monitored, for example, multiple hard disks, you can display metric dimensions, which are metrics for separate elements.
    • To view metric dimensions, click Get dimensions. Select a dimension.
      • If no dimension is selected, the default value is the average of all dimensions

Click Accept to save the values.

To view the exact metric values in a call-out box, mouse over the monitoring graph line.

To create a highlight point, click on the metric graph line.

To simultaneously view the data for more than one virtual machine, use the virtual appliance monitoring view.

Configure Alarms

View alarms

Users with the privilege to Access alarms section in virtual machines can edit a virtual machine and open the Alarms tab.

Users with the privilege to Access alerts can also open the Control tab in the Virtual machines page and view the alarms associated with an alert.

Create an alarm

To create virtual machine alarms for virtual machine metrics. 

Before you begin:

  1. On the Monitoring tab, select the Retrieve metrics checkbox to enable monitoring and retrieve metrics
  2. Click Save

To create an alarm:

  1. Edit a virtual machine
    1. Check that you are retrieving metrics
      • If you are not retrieving metrics, you may create an alarm but it will not be triggered
      • In Abiquo 3.8.0, if you are not displaying the metric for use in the alarm, you can create an alarm but it will not be triggered
  2. Open the Alarms tab and click the + button to create an alarm
  3. Enter the alarm details. See the Create an alarm UI reference section
  4. Click Save

The platform will create the alarm for the metric. If you would like the platform to notify you when an alarm is triggered, create an Alert for the virtual appliance.

Field

Description

Name

Name of the alarm. The name can contain up to 128 characters. You can create more than one alarm with the same name, but only if the alarms are for different metrics. However, in Abiquo 3.8.0, you will need to be able to identify the alarms by name when creating an alert.

DescriptionDescribe the alarm
Virtual machineVirtual machine name, which by default is the virtual machine template name. Display only
MetricEnable fetch metrics on the monitoring tab to retrieve metrics for evaluation of the alarm. When you enable the retrieval of metrics, Abiquo will retrieve all metrics, even if you do not select them for display on the monitoring tab. For your alarm, select one of the metrics available for the virtual machine. In Abiquo 3.8.1+, you do not need to display a metric to use it with an alarm, but it may be helpful to do so.

Period

Elapsed time during which the platform will evaluate the alarm based on the statistic and the threshold. The minimum value is 60 seconds

Evaluation periods

Number of periods during which the platform will evaluate the alarm.

Statistic

Statistic that the platform will use for evaluating the alarm:

  • average
  • maximum
  • minimum
  • sum
  • count
  • dev

Formula

Operator that the platform will use for evaluation of the alarm, for example, greater than. Values can be:

  • notequal
  • greaterthan
  • greaterthanorequalto
  • lessthan
  • lessthanorequalto
  • trendup
  • trenddown

Threshold

Value that the platform will evaluate the alarm against, if appropriate

Related topics
Manage Virtual Appliances

Edit an alarm

Modifying an alarm requires the same privileges as creating an alarm.

When you edit an alarm, you cannot modify the Metric field.

You can also modify an alarm on the Control tab of the Virtual appliances pane. 

Delete an alarm

You can delete any alarm at any time, even if it is part of one or more alerts.

The platform will not warn you that the alarm is used in an alert. However, you can check this on the virtual appliance's Control tab.

After you delete an alarm, you cannot recover it.

If you delete the virtual machine, the platform will delete any alarms associated with it.

Configure Variables

You can set guest variables to pass user data to your virtual machines and Docker workloads before deployment.

Support for variables

This feature depends on the support of the hypervisor, cloud provider or Docker. Full support is available in all cloud providers, hypervisors and Docker, with the exception of KVM, which uses metadata, and Hyper-V.

This functionality is available through the Abiquo API. Variables are stored in the VirtualMachine variables attribute, which is a dictionary of variable keys and values. You can create variables for virtual machines when you create a virtual machine, and update or delete them by updating the virtual machine. See VirtualMachineResource

Default template variables

Your administrator may have added variables to your template. Before you deploy the virtual machine, you can add new variables, edit existing variables and remove them.

Add variables

You can only add guest variables to machines that are undeployed.

To add Guest Variables through the UI, edit the virtual machine or container, and go to the Variables tab.

Enter the Key and Value, then click Add. 

The maximum length for VM variables is a key of 50 characters and value of 255 characters.


Edit variable values

To edit a value, click the pencil edit button next to the value.

Delete variables

To delete a variable, click the X in the left column beside the variable name.

To save the virtual machine or container with the variables added or deleted, click Save. The virtual machine will be reconfigured.

Read Guest Variables

Reading VM variables in ESX guests:
The guest must have the VmWare Tools installed. Then you can run the following command in the guest to get the value of a variable:
vmtoolsd --cmd "info-get guestinfo.abiquo.<variable-name>"

Reading VM variables in XenServer:
The guest must have the XenServer Tools installed. The you can retrieve the variables as follows:
In Windows guests, you can use the WMI interface as explained here: http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX136422?_ga=1.183130470.1771169273.1424347211
In Unix guests, you can run the command: xenstore-ls vm-data

Reading VM variables in AMAZON:
The variables are stored on the virtual machine filesystem in ~/vm-variables.rc 

Reading VM variables in Azure:
Azure will populate the variables to the templates that support Cloud Init. You can read them as follows:
In Windows VMs: You’ll find the variables in the file: %SYSTEMDRIVE%\AzureData\CustomData.bin
In Linux hosts, data is available in: /var/lib/waagent/ovf-env.xml
The data in those files is encoded in Base64 so you’ll have to decode it first. In some Linux images, though, data is already decoded and available in: /var/lib/waagent/CustomData
For more info see: http://azure.microsoft.com/blog/2014/04/21/custom-data-and-cloud-init-on-windows-azure/

Reading VM variables in DigitalOcean
See https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/an-introduction-to-droplet-metadata

Reading VM variables in GCE
See https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/metadata