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Abiquo 4.6

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1. Introduction to public cloud integrations

This section introduces the key concepts of the integrations with vCloud Director, AWS, and Azure.

1.1. Virtual datacenters

The platform offers user access to virtual datacenters (VDCs) that are separate groups of virtual resources. A VDC has equivalents in each cloud provider, so it gives you a common interface and API to all the providers - see the table below. For example, the platform’s concept of the VDC is equivalent to  the VPC in AWS (Amazon). In vCloud Director (vCloud), the VDC is equivalent to a vApp. In ARM Compute (Azure), the VDC is equivalent to a Virtual Network and its associated resources. 


1.2. Virtual appliances

Within its VDCs, the platform groups VMs into virtual appliances (VApps). The purpose of the VApp is to enable you to manage a group of VMs together, which means that you can deploy them in one click, or view their metrics together, or create custom metrics for the VApp, for example. You can move VMs from one VApp to another within the same VDC. A VApp is not equivalent to any specific concept in vCloud or public cloud.

1.3. Networks

In vCloud, the platform supports the onboarding of the following networks:

  • External networks outside the OrgVDC but connected to the Edge are external networks in the platform, for use by load balancers but not VM vNICs
  • External networks outside the OrgVDC with a direct connection to OrgVDC as OrgVDCNetwork are external networks
  • Org networks inside the Org VDC and routed through the Edge are external networks
  • Isolated Org networks are external networks, for use by VM vNICs but not load balancers
  • vApp networks are private networks.

2. Configure your user account

All users should configure their user accounts before starting work with the cloud platform.

2.1. Edit user details

To edit your user account, click on the user name or icon in the top right-hand corner of the screen, and select the Edit user option from the pull-down menu.

Abiquo recommends that you change your password and update your user details, especially your email address and telephone number, which can be used for notifications and authentication.

You can also add your public key for access to deployed virtual machines.

Your platform may offer or require two-factor authentication (2fa) to improve user login security with an additional authentication code. For platform configuration instructions, see Configure two factor authentication.

Before you begin:

  • To use Google Authenticator to obtain the codes, install the Google Authenticator app on your cell phone. 
  • To use email authentication to obtain the codes, check that you have a valid email address in your user account on the platform.

To enable two-factor authentication for your user account, do these steps:

  1. Click on the name or icon in the top right-hand corner of the screen, and in the username menu, select Two-factor authentication.
    From the username menu, select enable two-factor authentication
  2. Select the authentication method and click Enable
  3. Copy the backup codes from the bottom left-hand corner of the configuration window to a secure place. You can use these codes to log in to the platform if the authentication cycle fails
    • The platform will display backup codes ONCE only
  4. Authenticate according to your selected method
    • For Google Authenticator, use the Google Authenticator app on your cell phone to scan the QR code. Google will supply a verification code in the app. During login, the platform will request the authentication code from the app. Enter the code in the field below the password
    • For email, during login, every time you enter your user name and password to log in, a code will be sent to the email address registered in your Abiquo user account. Enter the code on the login dialog

Screenshot: Enabling two factor authentication

Two-factor authentication popup to select authentication method

Screenshot: Two factor authentication with backup codes (left) and QR code (middle)

Example of backup codes and QR code for two-factor authentication

Screenshot: Login with two-factor authenticationLogin with two-factor authentication

3. Create public cloud regions

 


To create a public cloud region for

  • an OpenStack cloud (public or private), see Generic OpenStack Integration
  • a vCloud Director cloud, you will need Administrator credentials or Organization credentials. To use a region, you will need Organization credentials. For more details, see VMware vCloud Director.

Privilege: Access Infrastructure view and PCRs, Manage public cloud regions

To create a new public cloud region:

  1. In Infrastructure view click on the Public tab.
  2. Then click the add button at the top of the public cloud regions list. 

  3. The Create public cloud region popup will open.

    ElementDescription
    NameThe base name of the public cloud regions. Note that you can change the names later. Abiquo will create the first region with the name you enter and the others with a suffix of "_1", "_2", and so on. Abiquo creates the regions in order and if a region cannot be created, then Abiquo will try to create the next region on the list
    ProviderSelect the public cloud provider
    RegionSelect one or more regions
  4. Click Next

  5. Create the public cloud region remote services

    Remote services:

    ElementDescription
    Duplicate IP addressesTo use the same IP address for all remote services, enter an IP address, then click this link
    ProtocolDefault values should work fine
    IP addressEnter the address of the server where the remote services are running. To share or reuse remote services from another datacenter or public cloud region, type the first number of the IP address or server name to open a selection list. To share a Virtualization manager (virtual factory) or Monitor manager (VSM), you must use a shared Redis instance
    PortThe port for the connection to the remote services. Default ports for DHCP are 7911 (omapi) and 832 (dnsmasq)
    NameThe name of the remote service webapp
    Check all / Check

    Click to ensure that the Abiquo Server can connect to the remote services.

    Automatically open datacenter after creationOptionally select to go to the new datacenter

The platform will create your public cloud region.

  • To allow users to deploy in the public cloud region, edit your enterprises to add credentials and add the new region to the Allowed datacenters list 
    • You will require one separate account for each enterprise using a public cloud region, i.e. one account per enterprise
  • To allow administrators to manage the public cloud region, edit your administration scopes


4. Create tenants

4.1. Introduction to enterprise tenants

In the platform, enterprises are cloud tenants, meaning they are groups of cloud users with their own logical resources. For more information, see Users (in the Walkthrough). For each tenant, you can assign access to infrastructure and resources.

Privilege: Manage enterprises, Manage users of all enterprises

Before you begin managing enterprises, we recommend that you do these steps:




4.2. Create an Enterprise

To create a cloud tenant enterprise, do these steps:

  1. Go to Users → Enterprise list

  2. Click the + Add button

  3. Enter tenant details and options as described below
    • To enable the tenant's users to deploy, allow the tenant to access at least one datacenter or public cloud region
  4. Define the resources the enterprise can use
  5. Click Accept to save

Abiquo will create the enterprise and filter to display only this enterprise. To display other enterprises, click the X beside the enterprise name in the filter box at the top of the Enterprises list. 

After you have created the enterprise:

  1. Abiquo will add this enterprise to the scope of the administrator who created the enterprise
    1. Optionally move this enterprise to a scope with related enterprises and assign the scope to the appropriate cloud and/or tenant administrators
  2. Optionally edit the tenant to set the default scope for users created in this tenant
  3. Create enterprise users with appropriate roles and scopes, for example a tenant administrator and users. Note that the tenant administrator can be allowed to create their own users




4.3. Configure a tenant with general information


Field

Description

Name

The name of the Enterprise

Default scopeThe default scope to assign to future users that administrators create in this tenant. When creating users, an administrator can assign the enterprise’s default scope, even if it is above their scope in a hierarchy. Generally you should set this to a low scope.
Require two factor authenticationTo make two-factor authentication mandatory for all users of this enterprise, select this checkbox. Note that an administrator must configure it in the platform first. See Configure two factor authentication
Enable workflowTo enable workflow for this enterprise, mark this checkbox. Note that an administrator must configure it in the platform first. See Abiquo Workflow Feature
ResellerSelect this flag to mark the enterprise as a reseller
Key nodeSelect this flag to mark the enterprise as the key node of its default scope, for example, as the headquarters of an organization
Enterprise logoA logo file for the enterprise in web format (PNG, JPEG, GIF). The size of the default logo is 150 x 37 pixels. This will override the default logo, which is set in Configuration View.
Default themeA branding theme created for the enterprise. See Abiquo Branding Guide


4.4. Control tenant resources

You can control the resources that an enterprise may consume. This will help prevent resource over allocation, enterprises using resources from other enterprises, and even DoS attacks. Allocation limits will also help system administrators to anticipate user needs and forecast resource demand. Hard and soft limits are used by the resource scheduler to decide if a user can deploy a virtual appliance or not.

  • Hard Limit: the maximum amount of resources (CPU, RAM, Hard Disk, etc.) that an enterprise may consume.
  • Soft Limit: triggers a warning for users that they nearing the hard limits for their enterprise.

 

 

 

LimitChecked atDescription

Memory

Deployment

Total amount of RAM that may be used by VMs including hardware profiles assigned to VMs

Virtual CPUs

Deployment

Total number of virtual CPU cores that may be used by VMs including hardware profiles assigned to VMs

Local hard disk

Deployment

Total size of hard disk that may be used by VMs on hypervisor datastores and in public cloud providers

External storage

Configuration

Total size of external storage that may be assigned to VMs

VLANs

Configuration

Total number of private VLANs that may be defined. Note that a private VLAN is automatically created for every VDC, so this limit may restrict the number of VDCs that users can create

Public /floating/NAT IPs

Configuration

Total number of public IPs, floating IPs (in public cloud), and NAT IPs that may be used

RepositoryOperationsTotal size of NFS Repository space that maybe used for the Apps Library including templates and instances (but not conversions). See Manage the Datacenter Apps Library#HowmuchspacecanatenantuseintheAppsLibrary?
Virtual machinesDeploymentTotal number of VMs that users can deploy in the location using their allowed resources

In public cloud regions, the platform does not support External storage and Repository (Apps library storage) features or limits 

Enterprise allocation limits are checked during configuration or deploy, or before operations as described in the above table.

When creating allocation limits, you cannot have a hard limit only.  And soft limits must always be less than or equal to hard limits. In addition, if the limits are equal to 0, then this means there is  no limit to resource usage at this level.  See  Allocation limit rules

4.5. Allow the tenant to access regions

To set the public cloud regions and datacenters that an enterprise is allowed to access, edit the Enterprise and click the Datacenters tab.

Drag and drop one or more public cloud regions or providers, or datacenters from the left pane into the "Allowed Datacenters" pane on the right.

An enterprise needs access to at least one public cloud region or datacenter so that its users can deploy VMs.

Note: when you create a public cloud region or a datacenter, the platform allows it for your own enterprise automatically. For all other enterprise, the platform adds it to the list in the left pane, which contains "Prohibited datacenters".

Allowed datacenters are working datacenters where users can deploy. This is different to an admin user having administration Scope to administer the infrastructure of datacenter. 

4.6. Limit tenant resources in the region

You can set resource allocation limits for this enterprise in each allowed datacenter or public cloud region. To set allocation limits, select one of the Allowed Datacenters in the right pane and click the edit button. Set these limit values in the pop-up that opens.

Field

Checked at

Description

RAM

Deployment

Total amount of RAM memory that may be used by Amazon hardware profiles assigned to VMs

Virtual CPUs

Deployment

Total amount of Virtual CPU cores that may be used by Amazon hardware profiles assigned to VMs

Local Hard Disk

Deployment

Total size of hard disk that may be used by VM templates (e.g. Amazon AMIs) deployed as VMs

External Storage

-

-

VLANs

Configuration

Total number of private VLANs that maybe deployed

Public IPs

Configuration

Total amount of Elastic IPs that may be used

Repository--

5. Manage cloud provider credentials

Each tenant should have its own set of API credentials for each provider.

5.1. Obtain cloud provider credentials

If the tenant does not have cloud provider credentials, they should follow their cloud provider's instructions on how to obtain access to the provider's API.

Abiquo provides basic guides to obtaining credentials, but the tenant should always consult the cloud provider for the most up-to-date information.

5.2. Add tenant credentials for each provider

Before you enter public cloud credentials, there must be an existing public cloud region for the provider.

To add credentials for a public cloud provider

  1. Check in Infrastructure view or with your Administrator, that the public cloud region is already created
  2. Edit the enterprise and select the Credentials tab
  3. From the Provider pull down list, select the public cloud provider
  4. Enter your Access key ID, which may be a Username, a specific API access key ID or other account identifier
  5. Enter your Secret access key, which may be an API key or other API credential
  6. Click Validate account
  7. After the account has been validated, click Save




6. Prepare foundation template library

In the Abiquo Apps Library you can compile a selection of certified public cloud templates for your users to deploy by self-service.

Abiquo will store the details of these templates but not their disks.

Public cloud libraries can have many thousands of VM templates (e.g. AWS has 19,000 AMIs) that are difficult to find and manage. In addition, administrators cannot control the content of public cloud templates. In the Apps library, you can define a cache of details of your approved or certified public cloud templates. And you can customize the templates' representation to make it even easier for cloud users to find the right template. 

Public cloud templates belong only to the region they were created in. Templates in one region usually cannot be accessed from another region and this rule also applies to the Abiquo Apps library. Public cloud templates that are effectively the same will usually have different IDs and names in each region.
The Apps library is a collection of VM templates that enables users to quickly and easily deploy VMs. 

To display public cloud templates:

  1. Click the Apps library icon   in the main menu bar to go to Apps library.
  2. Click on the Public radio button. 
  3. In the public list, click on the name of the public cloud region. By default you will see any templates you can deploy within this region in icon view. 
    1. To change to the list view, click on the List view tab symbol in the top right-hand corner.

To display the details of a template, move the mouse over the template. A tooltip will display the template information.

 Click here to show/hide the screenshot


The VM templates in the Apps library may be marked with the symbols described in the following table.

Template typeSymbolDescription
Shared template

A template that may be used by all enterprises in the template's scope. See Modify a VM Template#ScopestabforsharingVMtemplates

Deleted templateAlso called an Unavailable template. The template has one or more disks missing in the Apps library filesystem.
Failed templateThe template disk file was not properly created


6.1. Filter local public cloud templates

The public cloud template search and filter is used for all public clouds and private clouds that use their own registry, such as OpenStack and vCloud Director, and Docker

Filter

Type

Comments

ID

Free text

For example, ami-0354b96a

Name

Free text

Search for this text in each template Name and Description. The search is not case sensitive

OS type

Selector

Any, Windows or Other

32 bits

Checkbox

32-bit images

64 bits

Checkbox

64-bit images

You can filter to find the templates you want to work with in the Apps library. To open the filter, click the funnel Filter button. Enter filter values, including wildcards, and click Accept.


To reset filter values to defaults, click Clear. This will display all local templates. 

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7. Onboard from public cloud





You can onboard virtual resources from public cloud into the platform. If the cloud provider supports virtual datacenter (VDC) entities, such as AWS VPCs or Azure virtual networks, you can onboard them as VDCs and synchronize them. If the cloud provider does not support VDCs, then you can onboard the resources from the public cloud regions, such as RackSpace and OpenStack regions. 

Privilege: Manage virtual datacenters

Before onboarding virtual resources, administrators must do these steps:

  1. Create the public cloud region to import from
  2. Allow the tenant access to the public cloud region (Enterprise → Datacenters → Allow datacenter)
  3. Register the tenant's credentials for the public cloud provider (Enterprise → Credentials)


7.1. Onboard virtual datacenters from public cloud

To onboard a virtual datacenter from public cloud:
  1. Go to Virtual datacenters
  2. At the top of the V. Datacenters list, click the + Add button
  3. Select Synchronize public cloud
  4. Select a public cloud region
  5. Select the virtual datacenter entity to onboard. For example, VPCs in AWS or Virtual networks in Azure. Select an entity and click the Synchronize button. 
    For an AWS region, select a VPC to synchronize as an Abiquo virtual datacenter
  6. The platform will load all of the elements into a virtual datacenter so they can be managed. For example, from AWS, the platform will import the VPC, VMs, subnet with IP addresses, public IPs, firewalls and load balancers, which will be named with their provider identifiers. 
    • The platform will mark the public subnet (identified by a custom route table and NAT gateway) with a globe symbol and set the Internet gateway flag for this subnet. 

    • Users with bespoke network configurations should check the results of the synchronization. 

    • The platform will synchronize private and public IP addresses even if they are not in use by VMs, and mark the IP addresses in use by provider entities with provider identifiers.

       Click here to show/hide the screenshot

    • The platform will import VM templates. If the platform cannot find the VM template, the VM will have no template in the platform. To save a copy of your VM disk to create a template, so you can recreate the VM, make an Abiquo instance of the VM. 

       Click here to show/hide the screenshot

If you delete a synchronized VDC, the platform will delete it in the provider. Always check which is the default VDC in your provider, e.g. AWS default VPC, because it may be inconvenient to delete this VPC

If your enterprise does not have valid credentials for the public cloud provider, when you delete public cloud entities in the platform, they will still exist in the public cloud provider




7.2. View classic VMs

To display classic VMs in public cloud:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters
  2. Click the + add button and select Synchronize public cloud
  3. Select the public cloud region
  4. Click the See classic link
    For example in AWS these are EC2 classic VMs, click the "See classic" link. 

     Click here to show/hide the screenshot

    The platform will display classic VMs



7.3. Synchronize VDCs and resources

During VDC synchronization, the platform will ensure that the resources in the platform and the provider are the same.
  • It will delete entities in the platform that were deleted already in the provider
  • However, it will maintain resources attached to undeployed VMs in the platform
    • For example, if a user has an undeployed VM with IPs and a load balancer, then after the synchronization, these resources are attached to the VM in the platform only
    • Warning: These resources are "free" in the provider. Users working directly in the provider could assign these resources to other VMs. This will cause a conflict and error at deploy time

To update a virtual datacenter and onboard any changes made in the provider, synchronize the virtual datacenter:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → V. Datacenters list
  2. Beside the virtual datacenter name, click the double arrow Refresh button

You can also synchronize resources such as networks, public IPs, firewalls, and load balancers. To do this, go to the resource tab and click the straight double arrow Synchronize button. For more information, see the resource documentation.

 Click here to show/hide the screenshots

Screenshot: Synchronize firewalls

Synchronize firewalls that you onboarded or created in public cloud

Screenshot: Synchronize private networks in public cloud

Public cloud synchronization parameters

Note to System Administrators: For information about tuning public cloud synchronization, see Abiquo Configuration Properties.



7.4. Manage resources that were deleted directly in the cloud provider

When administrators delete resources in the provider, the platform will display the resource name in light gray to indicate that the user cannot work with the resource. The resource types include:
  • External networks
  • Firewalls 
  • Classic firewalls 
  • Load balancers 
  • NAT network
  • NAT IPs

To delete these resources (if they are not in use), select the resource and click the delete button.

 Click here to show/hide the screenshot



7.5. Delete or release virtual resources in public cloud

The virtual resources that you onboarded or created in public cloud will be grouped with their associated virtual datacenters.

Before you begin:

  1. If you recently created virtual resources, such as load balancers, synchronize the virtual datacenter to ensure that the platform can find and delete all the dependencies of the virtual datacenter.

To delete onboarded resources in public cloud:

  1. Delete each virtual datacenter
    • You can choose to delete each virtual datacenter in the platform only, or in the platform and the provider. 
    • If you delete in the platform only, the platform will automatically remove VMs, virtual appliances, load balancers, public IPs, and firewalls from the virtual datacenter. The firewalls will remain in the enterprise and you can reuse them.
    • When you delete a virtual datacenter, public IPs that are not used by VMs will remain in the provider and the synchronization process will delete them
    • Remember to check which is the default VDC in your provider, e.g. AWS default VPC, because it may be inconvenient to delete this VPC


If the enterprise does not have valid credentials for the public cloud provider, when you delete public cloud entities in the platform, they will continue to exist in the public cloud provider



7.6. Onboard from public cloud using the API


Abiquo API Feature

This feature is available in the Abiquo API. See VirtualDatacentersResource for synchronization and AllowedLocationsResource for retrieval of virtual datacenters and VMs.



7.7. Onboard from public cloud regions without virtual datacenters

The platform onboards and synchronizes virtual resources in public cloud regions for providers that do not use virtual datacenters or similar entities, for example, OpenStack clouds and Rackspace. You can only synchronize these providers at the public cloud region level. You cannot synchronize a VDC or an individual resource, for example, a load balancer. 

If your public cloud provider does not support virtual datacenter entities, to onboard virtual resources do the following steps:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters
  2. At the top of the V. Datacenters list, click the + Add button
  3. Select Synchronize public cloud
  4. Select a public cloud region

The platform will place all VMs and network resources that are not related to existing virtual resources into a generic virtual datacenter. The platform names this virtual datacenter with the same name as the public cloud region, but the user can rename it. The platform will use this virtual datacenter for future synchronizations, adding or removing resources to match the cloud provider.

If the platform already has virtual resources on the platform for the provider, then these entities will already be part of a virtual datacenter. The platform will check if any new entities in the provider are related to the existing ones in the platform and place them in the existing virtual datacenter.

If the integration with the provider supports entities that are not assigned to any virtual datacenter, such as firewalls, load balancers, or floating IPs, these may be loaded into the platform as unassigned entities.

If conflicts occur during synchronization, the platform will cancel the synchronization. This would occur if two VMs already exist in different VDCs but are related by a firewall or load balancer. Or if two firewall policies or load balancers exist in different virtual datacenters but are related by a VM.




8. Create virtual datacenters

You can work with virtual machines, networks and storage in Virtual datacenters view

To create a new virtual datacenter:
  1. Go to Virtual datacenters
  2. Above the V. datacenters list, click the  button
  3. Select Create a new virtual datacenter from the pull-down menu
  4. Complete the dialog as described below
  5. Click Save

8.1.1. General information

This section describes the basic details to enter when creating a virtual datacenter. The following sections describe further configuration.

Create a virtual datacenter with NAT. Select the NAT network and the IP address for the default SNAT rule

Field

Description

Name

The name of the virtual datacenter

Location

The datacenter or public cloud region where virtual appliances will be deployed. You can select any of your allowed locations

Hypervisor

The type of the hypervisor for the virtual datacenter. This option will not display if there is only one choice.

Network

  • Default: Create a VLAN (default private or external) in the pre-configured range
  • Custom Private: Create a custom private VLAN (see form below)

If your environment supports NAT you may also be able to select the IP address for the default SNAT rule

Field

Description

NAT networkOptionally select the NAT network to use for the default SNAT rule
Default NAT IPOptionally select the NAT IP address for the default SNAT rule for the virtual datacenter




8.2. Create a virtual datacenter with custom networks

When you create a virtual datacenter, the platform always creates a private network and it counts as part of your VLAN allocation limits, even if the default network is another type of network.

The private network can be the "Automatically-created private VLAN", which is called "default_private_network", or a custom private network, which will be set as the default network.

To create a Custom private network, complete the network section of this dialog.

 Click here to show/hide the screenshot

Field

Description

Network name

The name of the VLAN to create

NetmaskThe network mask

Network address

The network address

Gateway

The IP of the gateway of the VLAN

Availability zonePublic cloud, e.g. AWS: The availability zone where VMs attached to this network will deploy.

Primary DNS

The primary DNS of the network

Secondary DNS

The secondary DNS of the VLAN

DNS suffix

The DNS suffix for the VLAN

Static routesMark the checkbox to define static routes

To manage the VLANs of your virtual datacenter, go to Virtual datacenters → Network. See Manage Networks.




8.3. Manage resource allocation limits for a virtual datacenter

  • Hard limit is the maximum amount of a virtual resource (e.g. RAM) that an entity will be allowed to consume. 
  • Soft limit warns users and administrators that the entity is running out of a resource.

The rules for creating allocation limits are as follows:

  • You cannot have a hard limit only
  • Soft limits must always be less than or equal to hard limits
  • When a limit is equal to 0, it means that there is no limit to resource usage at this level
  • When editing limits, you cannot set the hard limits below the existing resource usage.


 

LimitChecked atDescription

Memory

Deployment

Total amount of RAM that may be used by VMs including hardware profiles assigned to VMs

Virtual CPUs

Deployment

Total number of virtual CPU cores that may be used by VMs including hardware profiles assigned to VMs

Local hard disk

Deployment

Total size of hard disk that may be used by VMs on hypervisor datastores and in public cloud providers

External storage

Configuration

Total size of external storage that may be assigned to VMs in private cloud

VLANs

Configuration

Total number of private VLANs that may be defined. Note that a private VLAN is automatically created for every VDC, so this limit may restrict the number of VDCs that users can create

Public /floating/NAT IPs

Configuration

Total number of public IPs, floating IPs (in public cloud), and NAT IPs that may be used

Virtual machinesDeploymentTotal number of VMs that users can deploy in the location using their allowed resources

In public cloud regions, the platform does not support External storage and Repository (Apps library storage) features or limits. 


 Click here to show/hide allocation limit message details

Consider a virtual datacenter with a soft limit of 1 virtual CPU and a hard limit of 4 virtual CPUs.
  • The user will exceed the soft limit if they deploy a virtual appliance with more than 1 CPU in the virtual datacenter.
  • The user will exceed the hard limit if they attempt to deploy a virtual appliance with more than 4 CPUs in the virtual datacenter.

8.3.1. Soft limits message

A soft-limits message popup will allow the user to to acknowledge the message and continue with the operation.

By default, the message will provide details of the limits, used, and requested resources.

For example, the limits are 5 CPUs, the users have 2 CPUs in deployed VMs, and they have requested 3 more CPUs.

The platform will also display this type of message when the users exceed soft limits at another level, for example, enterprise, enterprise in provider, or enterprise in location.

8.3.2. Hard limits message

A hard-limits message pop-up will allow the user to acknowledge the message and terminate the operation.

By default, the message will provide details of the limits, used, and requested resources.

For example, the limits are 5 CPUs, the users have 5 CPUs in deployed VMs, and they have requested 1 more CPU. Because the user will exceed the hard limit, the platform will not allow the user to obtain 1 CPU.

The platform will also display this type of message when the users exceed soft limits at another level, for example, enterprise, enterprise in provider, or enterprise in location.




8.4. Set virtual datacenter defaults

Field

Description

Default datastore tier

Select the default disk service level for your non-persistent virtual machine disks on the hypervisor. This is the default datastore tier for the virtual datacenter.

  • To use your cloud provider's default tier, select "Configured by location"
  • Or select a default tier, according to the available service levels

To clear the current tier, click the black x symbol beside the tier name




8.5. Limit user access to the virtual datacenter

If you are able to manage user roles, you can limit user access to the virtual datacenter for users that are subject to VDC restriction, for example, to give users read-only access.

Privilege: Manage roles, No VDC restriction

Field

Description

Role

To limit access to the VDC for cloud users, select a more restrictive role to replace user roles within this VDC. For example, to give users read only access, select the ENTERPRISE_VIEWER role

User exceptionsTo create exceptions to the VDC role, select a username and an exception role for the user and click Add. The exception will enable all privileges that are included in both the user's role and the exception role

After you have entered allocation limits, defaults, and role, click Save.

The platform will create the virtual datacenter and the default private VLAN and display it in the Virtual Datacenters view. 


8.6. Create a virtual datacenter using the API

API Documentation

For the Abiquo API documentation of this feature, see Abiquo API Resources and the page for this resource VirtualDatacentersResource.




9. Manage Networks

This section describes how to manage networks in private datacenters and public cloud providers. 

9.1. Display virtual datacenter networks

To display the networks available to a virtual datacenter:
  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → select virtual datacenter → Network.
  • The default network is highlighted with a star symbol
  • A network with an internet gateway is highlighted with a globe symbol.

API Features

Virtual datacenter networks are available in the Abiquo API. For example, see VirtualDatacentersResource and PrivateNetworksResource.


Network tab in virtual datacenter highlighting default network and internet gateway

In the Networks list, to view the pool and allocation of IPs:

  • To see all the IPs in the virtual datacenter, click the All button on the top of the list
  • To see the IPs in a VLAN, click the VLAN name

You can then:

  • use the slider at the bottom of the list to move through the pages 
  • filter the list by entering text in the search box. The filter works with all the columns of the table including:
    • IP Address
    • MAC address
    • VLAN name
    • Virtual appliance using the IP
    • VM using the IP
    • Provider ID of the entity using the IP (for example, a load balancer)




9.2. Create a private network

Private networks are only available within a virtual datacenter. However, your cloud provider may configure an external gateway for your virtual datacenter.

To create a private network:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → select virtual datacenter → Network
  2. Click the  button  and complete the form

Create a private network

Button

Action

Name

Name of the network (VLAN). The name can contain up to 128 characters

IPv6Select checkbox for IPv6 network
NetmaskNetwork mask with an integer value of between 16 and 30

Network Address

Private address range of the network

Gateway

Gateway of the VLAN. Must be an IP within the range of the network address and mask

Primary DNS

The primary DNS

Secondary DNS

The secondary DNS

DNS suffix

The DNS suffix

Excluded from firewallSelect Excluded from firewall to define a network where VM firewalls will not apply

Static Routes

Select Define to create static routes. See Configure Static Routes

Default network

Make this network the default network, replacing the existing default network.

You can configure static routes when you create or edit a network. However, you should check with your systems administrator about when your VM will receive changes to static routes.

Configure static routes for Abiquo networks

Field

Description

Example

Netmask

Destination network mask

255.255.255.0

Network ID

Destination network or host

1.1.1.0

Gateway IP

Next hop (on your network)

10.10.10.100

 Click here to show/hide IPv6 networks

Strict network

 

Non-strict network

FieldDescription

Name

Name of the VLAN. The name can contain up to 128 characters

IPv6Select checkbox for IPv6 network
StrictIPv6 only. If you select Strict, Abiquo will automatically generate the network address (ULA) and also the IP addresses. If you do not select strict, you can enter the network address and IP addresses.
NetmaskNetwork mask of 48, 56 or 64.

Network Address

Private address range of the network. Only for non-strict networks

Primary DNS

The primary DNS

Secondary DNS

The secondary DNS

DNS suffix

The DNS suffix

Default network

Make this network the default network. In a datacenter, this will override the existing default network




9.3. Use private networks in public cloud

In public cloud providers that support networks:

  • When you onboard resources, the platform will onboard private networks, including details of IP addresses not used by VMs
  • You can synchronize private networks
  • You can create additional private networks in the provider
    • When you create a custom private network in AWS, you can choose the Availability Zone. Availability Zones enable users to deploy VMs separately, with high availability. 
    • To deploy in an Availability Zone, assign a private IP address in the network belonging to that Availability Zone



9.4. Create IP addresses in private networks

To create new IP addresses in a private network do these steps.

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → optionally select Virtual datacenter
  2. Go to Networks → Private → select Private network
  3. Click the Add button in the top right-hand corner of the Private IPs page and enter details

Or you can add an IP directly to a VM. To do this:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → edit VM → Network
  2. Click the + Add button and enter details (or drag "Auto-generated IP" into the network pane)

Enter the number of IPs and the first IP address in the range. The first IP address must be a new address that does not already exist in the network. After creating the first IP address, the platform will try to create the other IPs and it will skip any existing IP addresses. 

For example, if you have IP addresses in network 30.30.30.30, which are 30, 33, and 34 and then you request 3 new IPs from 30.30.30.31. The new IPs created should be as follows: 31, 32, 35. 
IP Addresses
30.30.30.30
30.30.30.31
30.30.30.32
30.30.30.33
30.30.30.34
30.30.30.35
 Click here to show/hide IPv6 details

When you add IPv6 addresses on strict networks, you don't need to set the starting address.

On non-strict IPv6 networks, Abiquo recommends that you create an automatic IP address, or you can enter an IP address manually as shown here.



9.5. Edit a private network

To edit a private network
  1. Select the network
  2. Click the Edit button  above the Networks list:
  3. You can change the network name, gateway, DNS settings, and make the network the new default for this virtual datacenter.
  4. Click Save

The new settings will apply to all VMs deployed after you save the network.




9.6. Delete a private network

You can delete a private network if no VMs are using its IPs and it is not the default network for the virtual datacenter.

To delete a private network:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → Network → Private
  2. Select the network and click the delete button  above the Networks list. 




9.7. Display onboarded external networks

The platform automatically onboards external networks when you onboard virtual datacenters from vCloud Director.

To display onboarded external networks

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → Network → Select vCloud VDC → External



9.8. Delete an onboarded external network

If an onboarded network has been deleted in the provider, its name will display in light gray text. If a VM is using an IP from this network, then you cannot deploy the VM.

If there are no VMs using the IPs of an external network that was already deleted in the provider, to delete the network in the platform, select it and click the Delete button.



9.9. Set default virtual datacenter networks

If you deploy a VM without assigning a NIC, Abiquo will add one in the virtual datacenter's default network.

To set a new or existing network as the default:

  1. When you create or edit the network, select the Default network checkbox. The new default network will apply to all VMs deployed after you set it.  

In private cloud, if you set a public network as the default, remember to obtain IP addresses for your VMs before you deploy!


During onboarding from public cloud, the platform will onboard existing public IP addresses in providers that support them, such as AWS and Azure. You can obtain them from the provider and assign them to your virtual datacenters and VMs.

Amazon may charge for Elastic IP addresses as soon as you reserve them for your virtual datacenter. Therefore you should reserve your IP addresses just before you deploy and check they are deleted when you undeploy your VMs.


To add public IP addresses to your virtual datacenter, so that you can later assign them to your VMs:

  1. Select a virtual datacenter in public cloud and go to Network → Public
  2. Click the add button  in the top right corner of the PUBLIC IPs page
  3. To add the public IP to a virtual datacenter, click the Add to VDC link near the IP address

Now when you edit a VM in the VDC and go to Network → Public, you will see the public IP address and you can add it to your VM.




9.10. Synchronize public IP addresses with the cloud provider

To onboard any public IP addresses that were already created in your cloud provider, or update changes made directly in the provider

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → Network → Public
  2. Click the Synchronize public IPs button

Related links:

9.11. Introduction to Firewalls

The platform provides a unified interface to firewalls in varied cloud environments. 

This section describes firewall policies, which are similar to security groups. The platform supports firewall policies in private cloud with network managers (NSX, Neutron) and in public cloud (AWS, Azure). In Oracle Cloud, the platform enables users to onboard classic firewalls and assign them to VMs.

In vCloud Director, the platform supports classic firewalls, which are Edge firewalls at level of the public cloud region (orgVDC). The platform does not support security groups for VMs in vCloud Director. See Manage classic firewalls




9.12. Synchronize firewall policies with the cloud provider

The synchronization process will onboard firewalls and it will update the platform's information about firewalls that already exist in the cloud provider. The platform synchronizes automatically when you onboard virtual resources from public cloud. Depending on the provider, the platform may support synchronization at the level of the location (public cloud region) or virtual datacenter.

To synchronize firewalls do these steps:

  1. Select All virtual datacenters and the location, or a single virtual datacenter
  2. Click the synchronize button  

To synchronize a firewall before you add new firewall rules:

  1. Select the firewall and click the synchronize button  .




9.13. Create a firewall policy


The platform can create firewall policies in virtual datacenters in the provider, or in the platform only, for later use in providers, depending on provider support.

Privilege: Manage firewall

To create a new firewall, do these steps:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → Network → Firewalls
  2. Click the add button
  3. Enter the firewall details

    Field

    Description

    Name

    Name of the firewall policy.

    LocationPublic cloud region
    Virtual datacenter
    • Virtual datacenter: The platform will create your firewall in the cloud provider. It will add a provider-ID that will display on the main Firewalls page. The platform will synchronize rules with the provider
    • No virtual datacenter: The platform will create the firewall in the platform only, for your enterprise in the public cloud region. The platform will not synchronize rules with the provider. The platform will create the firewall in the provider when you select a virtual datacenter.

    Description

    Description of the firewall policy

  4. Click Save to create the firewall
  5. Add firewall rules as described below

If you entered a virtual datacenter, the platform created your firewall in the provider. The platform will display a provider-ID and a virtual datacenter ID for the firewall. 

If you selected No virtual datacenter, the firewall will be created in the platform in the public cloud region for your enterprise. The synchronize process will not update this firewall. The platform will not create it in the provider until you select a virtual datacenter.


Related links:




9.14. Set a firewall policy as the default for a virtual datacenter

You can set a default firewall policy for each virtual datacenter. 

Privilege: Manage default firewall

To set or unset a default firewall for a virtual datacenter:

  1. Select the firewall
  2. Click the star button

When the user creates a VM, the platform will assign the default firewall. The firewall rules apply to VMs, not individual NICs on the VMs. Changes to the firewall ruleset will apply to every VM in the virtual datacenter with the default firewall. If you do not set a default firewall but the provider requires one, for example, AWS, the platform will set the provider's default firewall. In AWS the default firewall is not marked. 




9.15. Edit a firewall policy

If your provider allows it, you may edit a firewall policy in the platform. 

To edit a firewall policy:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → select virtual datacenter or select a region → Network → Firewalls
  2. Select the firewall and click the pencil edit button.
  3. Make your changes and click Save

Field

Description

Name

Name of the firewall policy

Virtual datacenter
  • Virtual datacenter: If your firewall had no virtual datacenter and you select one, the platform will create your firewall in the cloud provider. It will add a provider-ID that will display on the main Firewalls page. The platform will synchronize rules with the provider
DefaultSelect this option to set the firewall as the default. Note: The platform will not assign the default firewall to existing VMs.

Description

Description of the firewall policy

If the provider does not allow you to edit the policy, you may be able to delete the firewall in the provider, then reuse the configuration.

9.15.1. Edit firewall rules in AWS

Amazon allows you to edit firewall rules and you can do this through the platform. First synchronize the firewall to update the rules because AWS will not allow you to create a rule that already exists in the security group. Remember that it may take some time for firewall rules to propagate throughout AWS. Until the rules have propagated, the platform will not be able to detect them. See http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/query-api-troubleshooting.html#eventual-consistency

9.15.2. Edit firewalls in AWS

To edit an AWS firewall in Abiquo, you can delete the firewall directly in the provider, then synchronize so the provider ID will be removed from the firewall in the platform. You can now edit the firewall and the firewall rules, and you can even assign the firewall to another virtual datacenter. The following screenshot shows the default firewall for several different VDCs. The "webDB" firewall currently exists in AWS. The other firewalls have been created in the platform but are not assigned to a virtual datacenter and do not currently exist in AWS.

 Click here to show/hide the screenshot

Editing a firewall in AWS




9.16. Edit firewall policy rules

You can define firewall rules for inbound and outbound traffic in your firewall policy.

To add a new firewall rule:

  1. Select the virtual datacenter or location
  2. Select the firewall
  3. On the firewall rules panel, click the pencil Edit button
  4. Select the Inbound or Outbound tab for the traffic direction you wish to control
  5. Enter the details of a rule
    1. Protocol
      • Select from Common protocols, OR
      • Enter a custom protocol
    1. Port range with the start and end ports that this rule will apply to. You can enter the same value twice, for one port, or you can optionally apply the rule to a number of ports at the same time
    2. Source or Target IP address (network address/netmask).
  6. Click Add. The firewall rule will be added to the rule list. 
  7. Enter more rules as required, then click Save

Edit firewall rules




9.17. Delete firewall policy rules

To delete firewall rules, do these steps.

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → select a virtual datacenter or select All → Network → Firewalls
  2. Edit the firewall
  3. Select the Inbound or Outbound tab
  4. On the left-hand side of each rule you wish to delete, click the trash/garbage Delete button
  5. Click Save




9.18. Display firewall policies

You can display and manage firewalls in the platforms at the level of the virtual datacenter or the location (public cloud region or datacenter).

To display firewalls that exist in a virtual datacenter in the provider:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → Network → Firewalls
  2. In the Virtual datacenters list, select the virtual datacenter

Virtual datacenters view with Network tab on Firewalls page

To display all firewalls in a location (public cloud region or datacenter), including those that only exist in the platform and not in the provider:

  1. In the Virtual datacenters list, select All
  2. On the Firewalls tab, select the location (public cloud region or datacenter)
    Virtual datacenters view with Network tab displaying all firewalls in a region of the cloud provider

To filter firewalls, enter text in the search box to search by the name, description, and provider ID in the firewall list.



9.19. Assign a firewall policy to a VM

See Assign a firewall policy to a VM




9.20. Move a firewall policy to another VDC

To move a firewall to another virtual datacenter:

  • In Neutron, edit the firewall in Abiquo and change the VDC

  • In Azure ARM, edit the firewall and change or remove the virtual datacenter
  • In AWS, delete the firewall directly in the provider, then synchronize so the provider ID will be removed from the firewall in Abiquo. Now you can edit the firewall and change the virtual datacenter. This is because you are not allowed to edit firewalls or move them from one VPC to another in AWS but you can do this in Abiquo. The following screenshot shows a firewall after the AWS security group was deleted. The firewall rules are preserved for you to edit or apply to another virtual datacenter. 




9.21. Reuse a firewall after deleting a virtual datacenter

If you delete a virtual datacenter, the firewalls will be deleted in the cloud provider or network virtualization system but they will still be present in the platform. The details of the firewalls may vary, for example, in AWS they will not have a Provider ID but in Neutron they will have a provider ID. You can edit these firewalls as required and assign them to another virtual datacenter.

To assign a firewall with no virtual datacenter to a virtual datacenter, do these steps

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → Network → Firewalls

  2. Go to V. Datacenters All → Firewalls location

     Click here to expand...

    Reuse a firewall after deleting a virtual datacenter

  3. Select and edit the firewall
  4. Select the virtual datacenter to assign it to
  5. Click Save
 Click here to show/hide the screenshot

Edit a firewall to assign it to a new virtual datacenter



9.22. Delete a firewall policy

To delete a firewall policy:

  1. Edit each VM that is using the firewall policy to remove the firewall policy
  2. Select the firewall policy
  3. Click the Delete button




9.23. Troubleshoot firewall policies

Q: Does my firewall exist in the provider? Which VDC does it belong to?

A: In the Abiquo API, the firewall object contains a link to the virtual datacenter it belongs to.

  • In AWS or Azure ARM, if a firewall has a provider ID, then it exists in the cloud provider. The provider ID is the AWS security group ID or the Azure firewall name.
  • Neutron assigns a provider ID to the firewall and it remains the same. In Neutron, the provider ID does not indicate if the firewall is assigned to a VDC or not. This means that the firewall can have a provider ID even when it does not exist in the provider.



9.24. Manage firewalls with the API

API Documentation

For the Abiquo API documentation of this feature, see Abiquo API Resources and the page for this resource FirewallPoliciesResource.

9.25. Introduction to load balancers

The load balancer feature aims to simplify the creation of load balancers across all cloud platforms, providing a unified interface. You can create a load balancer in the enterprise for the location and later assign it to a virtual datacenter, and then the platform will create it in the provider. You can also reuse load balancer configurations.

Please refer to cloud provider documentation as the definitive guide to the load balancing features.  And remember to check your cloud provider pricing before you begin.

To manage load balancers, go to Virtual datacenters → Network → Load balancers.

To display load balancers for a region, including those that are not assigned to a virtual datacenter in a provider

  1. In the Virtual datacenters list, select All
  2. In the pull-down list next to the search box, select the region name

To display load balancers in virtual datacenters, select a virtual datacenter.

Virtual datacenters view with Network tab displaying load balancers

Load balancers in a provider usually belong to a virtual datacenter but in vCloud Director they belong to a public cloud region. This means that in vCloud Director, you can attach VMs from more than one virtual datacenter to the same load balancer, and these load balancers do not work with private networks, which belong to only one virtual datacenter.

See Provider support for load balancers tables




9.26. Create a load balancer

Before you begin:
  • Synchronize your virtual datacenters (including VMs, networks, firewalls, firewall rules, and load balancers)
  • If required by your provider, create firewalls for your VMs to allow your load balancers to access the VMs

To create a load balancer:

  1. Select a virtual datacenter → Network → Load balancers. 
    For vCloud, select All virtual datacenters → Network → Load balancers → Region
  2. Click the + Add button and complete the following dialogs according to your cloud provider's documentation
    Screenshot: Creating a load balancer in AWS

    Screenshot: Creating a load balancer in vCloud Director

     Click here to show/hide the screenshot

9.26.1. Load balancer general information

The following screenshots are from AWS.

Create a load balancer entering general information


Field

Value

Name

The name of the load balancer.

  • Amazon will only accept the following characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9 and "-", and you cannot modify the name
  • Azure will not accept names with white space

Subnets

In providers that support subnets, the subnets that the load balancer is connected to.

Algorithm

See cloud provider documentation for more information

Addresses

  • AWS: private or public IP
    Rackspace: private or public IP
    Azure ARM: private or public IP
    Neutron: private IP, or private and public IPs
    NSX: private IP, or private and public IPs
    vCloud Director: private or public IP (IPs on external networks)

  • You may be able to change the address to another one in the same VDC by editing the load balancer


9.26.2. Load balancer routing rules

Create a load balancer entering a routing rule

Field

Value

Common protocols

Select one of the common protocols to load presets

Protocol in

The incoming protocol to the load balancer. See cloud provider documentation for accepted values.

Port in

The incoming port to the load balancer. See cloud provider documentation for accepted values.

Protocol out

The outgoing protocol from the load balancer.

Port outThe outgoing port from the load balancer
SSL CerftificateFor secure connections (e.g. HTTPS), you can add an SSL certificate.
  • The platform will never store or validate the SSL certificate 
  • The platform will pass the certificate directly to the provider
Select an existing certificate or add a new one. Cannot be used in platform-only load balancers
AddClick Add to save a routing rule for the load balancer

To delete a routing rule, click the Delete button beside the name of the routing rule in the list

9.26.3. Load balancer SSL certificate

Create a load balancer entering a certificate

Field

Value

Name

Name of the certificate

Certificate

The certificate contents

Intermediate certificate

An intermediate certificate can be issued by a provider to support older browsers that may not have all of the trusted root certificates for that provider, so that users will not receive invalid SSL warnings. If you have an intermediate certificate, add it at the same time as the certificate to ensure that a trusted-chain certificate is configured.

Private key

The RSA private key for the certificate

9.26.4. Load balancer health check

Create a load balancer entering a health check

 

Field

Value

Common protocols

Select one of the most common protocols to load presets

Name

Name of the health check

Protocol

The protocol with which the health check will be performed

Port

The port to which the health check will be performed

PathThe server path to ping (for supported protocols)
Interval (sec)The interval in seconds between health checks
Timeout (sec)The timeout in seconds after which an attempted health check will be considered unsuccessful
AttemptsThe number of attempts before the health check will be considered unsuccessful
AddAdd the current health check to the load balancer

9.26.5. Load balancer firewalls

If your provider supports firewalls, to add a firewall to your load balancer, select your firewall from the list of firewalls that were created in your provider. Rackspace does not display a firewall selection list.

If a firewall is not on the list, it may not have been properly synchronized. In this case, you will need to click Cancel, synchronize firewalls and start again to create a new load balancer.

Create a load balancer selecting firewall policies to assign to the load balancer

9.26.6. Assign load balancer nodes

To assign your load balancer to VMs, drag and drop the VMs them from the Available Nodes list into the Attached Nodes list.

Privilege: Manage load balancers, Assign load balancers


  • The VMs to be load balanced can be in the same or different virtual appliances in the same virtual datacenter
  • You can also attach VMs by selecting load balancers when configuring the VM.

The following screenshot is from OpenStack Neutron. 

Create a load balancer assigning nodes

The platform will display the status of the load balancer nodes on the Nodes tab, if the status is available from the provider.

You can also check this status using the Abiquo API.




9.27. Manage load balancers with the API

API Documentation

For the Abiquo API documentation of this feature, see Abiquo API Resources and the page for this resource LoadBalancersResource.




9.28. Edit load balancers

The cloud provider determines which elements of a load balancer that you can modify. Due to different provider support for load balancer features, it may be possible to make modifications in the platform that will later be rejected by the cloud provider, triggering an error. Check your cloud provider documentation for supported modifications.




9.29. Edit VMs to assign or unassign to load balancers


Privilege: Assign load balancers

To assign a virtual machine to a load balancer, select the load balancer from the list.

Edit VM to assign a load balancer




9.30. Onboard and synchronize load balancers from public cloud

When you onboard a VDC from a public cloud provider, the load balancers associated with the VDC and its VMs will be onboarded into the platform.

To access vCloud load balancers, and provider-only load balancers

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → All virtual datacenters
  2. Go to Network → Load balancers → select region

To synchronize all load balancers in a VDC or region:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters
  2. Select the VDC or region
  3. Click the straight double arrow synchronize button.

Load balancers that have been deleted directly in the provider are displayed in light gray text. You can edit these load balancers to recreate them in the provider, or delete them.




9.31. Delete or release load balancers

To delete a load balancer, select the load balancer and click the delete button.

If your enterprise does not have credentials in the provider, then the load balancer will be released (it will be deleted in the platform but it will remain in cloud provider).




10. Manage virtual machines

This section describes the tasks that may be performed by the cloud user. 

10.1. Edit your user account details

After you log in, you may need to edit your user account to update your details:
  1. Click on the user icon in top right-hand corner of the screen and select Edit user from the pull-down menu
  2. Change your password and edit your user details. 
  3. Check you have the correct email address and phone number to receive passwords and authentication codes, and email notifications
  4. Add your public key that that the platform will use to launch VMs so that you can access them with SSH
 Click here to expand...

Edit user general information

Edit user advanced



10.2. Create a VM

To create a virtual machine (VM) do the following steps:
  1. Open the Virtual datacenters view by clicking on its icon in the top menu
  2. If there are no virtual appliances to hold groups of VMs, click Create a virtual appliance 
    Enter a Name and select a Virtual datacenter, and enter optional values and click Save
  3. Open a virtual appliance to hold a group of VMs by clicking on its name
  4. To create a VM, drag and drop a VM template from the Templates tab into the Virtual machines pane. You can also double-click the VM template

    1. If there is more than one version of the VM template, you can select another version
    2. If your cloud provider uses hardware profiles, select one
    3. If required, select the datastore service level for your VM disk/s

       Click here to show/hide the screenshot

The platform will create your VM. The status bar on the VM icon says it is NOT_ALLOCATED, which means that the VM has not been launched into the cloud.

The next step is to Configure a VM before you deploy.




10.3. Filter templates for creating VMs

The Template tab contains compatible templates only. If you cannot see an expected template, contact your system administrator. If there are a lot of templates, you may wish to filter the templates first.

To filter templates in the left-hand Template library tab:

  • Click the filter button and select a category from the pull-down list
    • To display only ISOs, select the checkbox
  • Enter text (including * wildcards) in the search box and press enter

To clear the search

  • Click the Clear link on the Category filter popup, which will clear both category and text search box
  • Click the grey X button beside the Search box
 Click here to expand...




10.4. Configure a VM before you deploy

To configure your VM before you launch it, do the following steps:
  1. On the VM icon, click on the options menu button, and from the options menu, select Edit
  2. Change the configuration options as described in this section
  3. Click Save

10.4.1. General configuration

To configure the basic general VM settings, optionally set the following:

  1. VM friendly name. Power-on is in alphanumeric order
  2. Guest setup in private cloud
    1. You can request a Guest initial password that will be sent by SMS or email
  3. Fully qualified domain name that the platform will set at deploy time
  4. Hardware profile and/or CPU, RAM and Cores per socket
  5. Description

To enable remote access to the VM:

  1. Select the Enable remote access check-box
  2. Display and optionally change the password for the remote access connection
  3. Before you deploy: 

    1. For SSH access, check that your user account has an SSH public key. See Configure your user account. You will need the SSH private key to log in to your VM

    2. In public cloud regions, assign:

      1. a public IP to your VM. See VM Network

      2. a firewall policy to allow access to the appropriate SSH or RDP port. See VM Firewall

You can now continue with further configuration or Save and deploy your VM.

If you don't add any IP addresses, the platform will automatically add one on the default network.

To configure IP addresses on your VM, do these steps:

  1. Select the Private, External, or Public tab
  2. For private and external, select the network
  3. Create NICs as required:
    • To use an existing IP address, drag and drop it into the NICs list
    • To request an automatically created NIC and IP, drag and drop the "Automatically generated IP" tag into the NICs list
    • For private networks, to create a new IP address and NIC, click the + button
    • For public networks, to obtain a new IP address, click the + button, select the network, and select the IP address
  4. Continue configuring your VM or click Save to finish

10.4.2. Firewall policies

Select the firewall policies to add. You can add as many firewall policies as necessary, up to the cloud provider's limit. If you can't see the expected policies, you may need to synchronize with your provider or wait for the platform to update provider data

10.4.3. Load balancers

Select the load balancers to use for the VM.

10.4.4. Monitoring

To enable monitoring and metrics do these steps:

  1. Select the Fetch metrics checkbox, which will retrieve all metrics
  2. Select from the available options for your provider, for example, for AWS, you can select basic or advanced monitoring
  3. Select the metrics you would like to display for your VM



10.5. Deploy to launch a VM

To launch a single VM to a virtualization technology (or a container to a Docker host), select the VM and click the Deploy VM button

The platform will check your access and schedule or allocate your VM to a hypervisor, public cloud region or Docker. Then the platform will configure it in the virtualization technology, then power it on. Of course, you can also deploy the whole group of VMs by clicking Deploy virtual appliance.




10.6. Display all VMs

To display all VMs of your enterprise, go to Virtual datacenters → All virtual datacenters → Virtual machines tab.

To display all the VMs in a specific virtual datacenter, select the virtual datacenter.

To select icon or grid view, click the icon symbol or the grid symbol in the top right hand corner.

To jump directly to the virtual appliance or virtual datacenter of the VM, go to Grid view and use the shortcut links by clicking on the name fields.

To filter the VMs, enter text from the VM details with wildcards as required. See Search for VMs and filter the search





10.7. Move a VM to another virtual appliance

To move a VM to another VApp in the same virtual datacenter:

  1. Select the VM

  2. On the VM control panel, click the VM move button

  3. Select the virtual appliance or create a new one, and click Accept

If you have the privilege to restrict VMs, you may also be able to move the VM to a restricted VApp in the same virtual datacenter. 



10.8. Move a VM to a restricted virtual appliance

When you move a VM to a restricted virtual appliance, your administrator or platform provider will control the VM. Your provider may offer this as an option to Outsource a VM.

To move a VM to a restricted virtual appliance:

  1. Click the VM move button on the VM control panel

  2. Select the option to move the VM to a restricted VApp OR select a restricted VApp from the list, or create a new one

     Click here to show/hide the screenshots



10.9. Move a deployed VM to another virtual datacenter

You can move a deployed VM to a virtual datacenter within the same Abiquo datacenter. The target VDC must have the same hypervisor type. If the VM is not deployed, the Move VM button will allow you to Move the VM to another virtual appliance in the same virtual datacenter.

Privilege: Manage VM move

To move a deployed VM to another VDC:

  1. If your VM does not support hot-reconfigure, shut down the VM. This is because moving a VM will change the configuration of the VM, for example, the NICs
  2. Select the VM and click the Move VM button
  3. For a deployed VM, the platform will display a list of compatible virtual datacenters (with the same hypervisor technology and network device) and virtual appliances.
  4. After you select the virtual appliance, the platform will display the configuration dialog.
  5. You must select at least one network address. It is possible to select the same external IP address that was already attached to the VM. 
  6. Optionally select firewalls and load balancers
  7. The platform may display a pricing estimate dialog for you to accept the new VM price.

The platform will move the VM to the new virtual datacenter. If the move is not successful, the VM will be restored to the original virtual datacenter.

10.9.1. Limitations

This feature does not move VMs with the following configuration:

  • External storage volumes
  • NAT rules
  • Scaling groups
  • Anti-affinity layers. 
    • The platform will attempt to remove the VM from its layer and if it cannot do so, then the move will fail. For more details of layer constraints, see Configure VM High Availability. The platform will not add the VM to a layer in the target VDC.




10.10. Delete a VM

To delete a VM, move the mouse over the VM and from the VM options menu, select Delete.

If the virtual appliance or VM is deployed, you do not need to undeploy it. You can directly delete a VM that is deployed. 

Select Delete from virtual machine options menu




11. Alarms

11.1. Create an alarm

An alarm activates when a metric passes a certain threshold. If you imagine a dashboard for your metrics, alarms are like red lights that light up when conditions change, for example, when there is a problem. 

If you would like the platform to notify you when an alarm activates, create an Alert for it in Control view. Alerts are a group of one or more alarms. They are like a worker monitoring a group of alarms; when all the lights for the group are lit up, the alert is activated. Alerts can also trigger action plans to perform automated actions when their alarms activate. After you create an alert, create an action plan in Control view with the alert as a trigger.

You can create alarms for built-in VM metrics or scaling group metrics, as well as custom metrics created using the API for VMs, scaling groups, virtual appliances, and virtual datacenters. 

You can push custom metrics for clone VMs but you cannot create alarms for cloned VMs that are part of a scaling group. This is because scaling groups have aggregate alarms that are associated with the base VM. 

Privilege: Access alarms section, Manage alarms

Virtual datacenters → Alarms


Before you begin:

  1. Configure the metrics you will use in the alarm. See VM monitoring and metrics and Custom Metrics Resources.

To create an alarm:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenter → Alarms
  2. Select virtual datacenter, virtual appliance, scaling group, or VM
  3. Click the Add + button in the top right hand corner
  4. Enter the alarm details

    Field

    Description

    Entity typeSelect an entity with metrics from the list on the left.
    Entity nameThe name of the entity
    Entity labelThe label of the entity, which for VMs is shown in the list on the left
    Entity iconThe icon that the platform displays in the UI for VMs and virtual appliances

    Name

    Name of the alarm with up to 128 characters. Alarm names must be unique for each metric

    DescriptionDescription of the alarm. Used together with the alarm name and VM name to identify the alarm, for example, when creating an alert
    MetricSelect one of the metrics available for the VM
    Metric unitThe unit of the metric. Read only
    Metric descriptionThe description of the metric. Read only
    DimensionWhen the metric has multiple dimensions, optionally select one or more dimensions. For example, if a VM has multiple hard disks, then the disk read bytes metric may have a dimension for each disk

    Last datapoints in period

    The number of datapoints that the platform will evaluate the metric during the elapsed time.

    If you request the evaluation of an alarm more frequently than metric data is collected by the platform or sent by the provider, then the alarm will not activate.

    We recommend that you create alarms with longer evaluation periods, for example, an average of 10 points over the last hour, so the transmission and collection intervals will not affect the activation of the alarm.

    Statistic

    Statistic that the platform will use for evaluating the alarm, which can be: average, maximum, minimum, sum, count, dev

    Formula

    Operator that the platform will use for evaluation of the alarm, for example, greater than. Values can be: notequal, greaterthan, greaterthanorequalto, lessthan, lessthanorequalto, trendup, trenddown

    Threshold

    Value that the platform will evaluate the alarm against, if appropriate

  5. Click Save

The platform will create the alarm for the metric. If you would like the platform to notify you when an alarm is triggered, create an Alert.

Troubleshooting alarms that do not trigger

  • Although the minimum value of the time period for alarm evaluation is 1 minute, the platform collects metrics data every 2 minutes by default but it can also be configured for each hypervisor or provider.
  • For the default configuration, to ensure that an alarm will activate, it should be evaluated at intervals of greater than 2 minutes.
  • In addition, each provider transmits metrics at different intervals, for example, with Amazon Basic monitoring, data is sent every 5 minutes, and with Advanced monitoring, every minute, whereas for vCloud, data is available on consultation.


For a scaling group, an alarm on a metric of the VM in the base workload will receive input from the metrics of all VMs in the scaling group. This means the base workload and/or the clone VMs. So an alarm for a scaling group can activate, even if the base workload is not deployed.

11.2.
Create alarms with the API

For API documentation about alarms on an entity, see the API documentation for the entity's resource. For example, for VMs, see VirtualMachinesResource.



11.3. Edit an alarm

When you edit an alarm, you cannot modify the metric or the entity.

When you edit an alarm, there is an extra field, "Active", that shows if the alarm is activated or not.

After you save the alarm, the platform will start to evaluate it again with new data when it receives the next set of metrics datapoints.





11.4. Delete an alarm

You can delete any alarm at any time, even if it is part of one or more alerts. The platform will not warn you that the alarm is used in an alert. However, you can check this in Control view. After you delete an alarm, you cannot recover it.

You can also remove an alarm from an alert.

Privilege: Access alarms section, Manage alarms, Manage alerts

To delete an alarm:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters or Infrastructure →  Alarms
  2. Select the alarm and delete it

To remove an alarm from an alert:

  1. Go to Control → Alerts → edit alert

  2. Select the alarm, click the delete button, and confirm
    The platform will remove it from this alert, but it will remain in all other alerts that it is associated with

If you delete a VM, the platform will delete any alarms associated with its metrics.




12. Alerts

12.1. Create Alerts and Alarms

An alert will trigger when all its alarms are activated. You can use the alert to trigger actions. See Manage Action Plans.

Privilege: Access alerts section, Manage alerts

Before you begin:

  1. Retrieve VM built-in metrics, by editing VMs and enabling monitoring (see VM monitoring and metrics) or create custom metrics
  2. Optionally create metric alarms (see Manage cloud alarms and Infrastructure Alarms). You must add at least one alarm to be able to save the alert.

To create an alert:

  1. Go to Control → Alerts
  2. Click the + add button
  3. Enter the alert details and assign alarms


    Field

    Description

    Name

    Name of the alert. The name can contain up to 128 characters

    DescriptionDescribe the alert
    MutedSelect this checkbox to disable action when the alert is activated
    EmailList of email addresses to notify when the alert activates. Click Add email to save each address
    Alarms

    Click the + Add button to assign alarms to the alert. You must assign at least one alarm to be able to save the alert. Select an existing alarm, or create a new alarm, and assign it to the alert. Repeat for the required alarms

  4. Click Save





12.2. Remove alarms from alerts

You can delete any alarm at any time, even if it is part of one or more alerts. The platform will not warn you that the alarm is used in an alert. However, you can check this in Control view. After you delete an alarm, you cannot recover it.

You can also remove an alarm from an alert.

Privilege: Access alarms section, Manage alarms, Manage alerts

To delete an alarm:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters or Infrastructure →  Alarms
  2. Select the alarm and delete it

To remove an alarm from an alert:

  1. Go to Control → Alerts → edit alert

  2. Select the alarm, click the delete button, and confirm
    The platform will remove it from this alert, but it will remain in all other alerts that it is associated with

If you delete a VM, the platform will delete any alarms associated with its metrics.





13. Scaling groups

To configure an automatic response to changing demands for resources, you can scale out VMs, which is also called horizontal autoscaling. To scale out, the platform clones the base VM and deploys the clones. To scale in, the platform will delete clone VMs and undeploy the base VM. Scaling operations are subject to all standard platform constraints, such as privileges and allocation limits.

Scaling notes

  • Limitations:
    • The platform does not clone captured VMs, so you will need to create an instance and recreate the VM from the resulting template to use scaling groups. Create instances to save VM disks to templates
    • VApp specs do not support scaling groups. See What do specs save and create
    • You can push custom metrics for clone VMs but you cannot create alarms for cloned VMs that are part of a scaling group. This is because scaling groups have aggregate alarms that are associated with the base VM.
  • State of base VM: A scaling group with a deployed base VM would be destroyed if the base VM were deleted directly on the hypervisor. In contrast, a scaling group with an undeployed base VM is not vulnerable to interference at the hypervisor level




The platform enables you to automatically scale out (add more VMs) or scale up (add more resources to existing VMs).

Privilege: Manage scaling groups, Manage workflow for scaling groups

To use autoscaling do these steps:

  1. Create a base VM, which can be deployed or undeployed
  2. Configure the VM and enable metrics
  3. Define a scaling group with rules for scaling the VM.
    The checkbox to create a scaling action, will create the following automatically:
    1. standard alarms and alerts for the selected metrics
    2. action plans with scaling actions for the VM and triggers for the action plans, which are monitoring alerts
    You can customize the elements the platform creates, or you can create your own configuration.




13.1. Define a scaling group

Before you begin:
  1. Configure the base VM that will be scaled
  2. Ensure that you have enough resources in your virtual datacenter to deploy up to the maximum number of cloned VMs, especially IP addresses

To create a scaling group:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → Virtual appliances
  2. Select the base VM, and from the menu on the VM icon, select the Create scaling group option
  3. Enter the scaling parameters and rules
  4. Click Save

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When you save the scaling group, Abiquo will mark the VM icon with the scaling group symbol and display the scaling group name. If the minimum number of deployed VMs are not present and the scaling group is not in maintenance, Abiquo will create clones of the base VM and deploy them to reach the minimum size. The number in the bottom right-hand corner of the icon is the number of running VMs in the scaling group, including the base VM.

To open the scaling group and check its parameters, click the scaling group symbol in the top right-hand corner of the VM icon.



13.2. Configure automatic scaling actions

To configure automatic scaling actions:

  1. When you define a scaling group, select Create autoscaling action and Save the scaling group
  2. In the dialog, select a metric to control an autoscaling action
  3. To configure more options, including the thresholds for scaling in and scaling out, click Show more
  4. To add this action, click Add
  5. Add more actions as required 

The platform will automatically create the alarms, alerts, and action plan to automatically scale in or out according to your thresholds.





13.3. Trigger autoscaling

Before you begin:
  1. Create a VM and a scaling group for the VM. See Define a scaling group

To trigger autoscaling operations:

  1. Create an action plan with a scaling action for the VM with the scaling group. See Create an action plan to automate VM actions
  2. Create triggers to run the action plan. See Create a trigger for an action plan

When scaling, the platform will search for a scaling rule that is valid for the specific time range, or for a default rule. It will create or delete/undeploy the number of VMs in the rule, then wait for the cooldown period before accepting another scaling request. 




13.4. How the platform scales VMs

To scale out, the platform does not deploy VMs that are undeployed in the scaling group. To clone the base VM, the platform will do the following:
  1. Create disks using the following:
    1. Copies of content of disks from the VM template
    2. Empty disks or volumes for each additional disk used in the VM
    3. Disk controllers used in the VM
  2. Apply ALL configuration used in the VM, for example:
    1. CPU and RAM
    2. Network connections of the same type (e.g. private network)
    3. Assignment of firewall policies and attachment to load balancers
    4. Chef recipes, backups, cloud-init, variables, and so on
    5. Metrics. The group of metrics from clone VMs and the base VM (if it is deployed) can activate alarms in the base VM, even if it is not deployed
    6. Exception – Alarms: the scaling group has only one set of alarms in the base VM

To scale in,  Abiquo currently selects the VMs to delete or undeploy using first in, first out (FIFO). The platform deletes and undeploys VMs without requesting user confirmation when there are disks that are not stored in the Apps library (ISO configuration drive or additional hard disk). 




13.5. Perform maintenance on a scaling group

To make changes to your VMs in a scaling group (manually deploy, undeploy, delete, etc.) and edit the scaling group, put it into maintenance mode, which will disable autoscaling. Note that you cannot delete the base VM without deleting the scaling group. 

When you leave maintenance mode, the platform will apply your modifications to the scaling group, e.g. adding new rules. Then the platform will adjust the number of VMs in the group to within the minimum and maximum size range.

To manually put the scaling group in maintenance mode:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → Virtual appliances → select VM
  2. Click the "cog" maintenance button

To automatically put a scaling group in maintenance mode:

  1. Trigger an action plan with the action "Scaling group: start maintenance mode"

To manually leave maintenance mode

  1. Click the "cog" maintenance button again

To automatically leave maintenance mode

  1.  trigger an action plan with the action "Scaling group: end maintenance mode".

Note that although you can push custom metrics for clone VMs, you cannot create alarms for cloned VMs that are part of a scaling group. This is because scaling groups have aggregate alarms that are associated with the base VM. 




13.6. Display scaling actions for a scaling group

To display scaling actions of a scaling group:
  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → Virtual appliances → open virtual appliance
  2. If the scaling group is not in maintenance mode, click the cog symbol 
  3. Edit the scaling group and go to Autoscaling actions
  4. To show or hide more details of an action, click Show more or Show less




13.7. Move a scaling group to another virtual appliance in the same virtual datacenter

To move a scaling group in maintenance mode to another virtual appliance in the same virtual datacenter:
  1. Click the Move VM button
  2. Select the new virtual appliance



13.8. Restrict a scaling group

To move a scaling group to a restricted virtual appliance, do these steps:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → select scaling group
  2. Click the VM move button on the VM control panel
  3. Select the checkbox to Move to a restricted virtual appliance, select a restricted virtual appliance, or create a new VApp and select the Restrict virtual appliance checkbox



13.9. Delete a scaling group

When you delete a scaling group, the platform will place all the VMs in the virtual appliance as regular VMs and the scaling group constraints will no longer exist. 

To delete a scaling group:

  1. Go to Virtual datacenters → select scaling group
  2. Click the "cog" button to put the scaling group into maintenance mode or run a maintenance action in an action plan
  3. Click the delete button



13.10. Manage scaling groups with the API

API Documentation

For the Abiquo API documentation of this feature, see Abiquo API Resources and the page for this resource ScalingGroupsResource.




14. Automation

14.1. Introduction to action plans

To enable more control over cloud operations, users can create action plans that will automatically run tasks on VMs and scaling groups, and to run general tasks. 

Action plans are an important automation functionality on the platform. They can combine tasks for VMs and scaling groups in different providers and have multiple triggers including alerts from custom metrics or built-in metrics. Each VM or scaling group can have multiple action plans.


Privilege: Access action plans and triggers, Manage action plans and triggers

Control → Action plans

You can automate the following entities and actions with action plans:

  • VM:
    • Reset
    • Power on
    • Power off
    • Shutdown
    • Deploy
    • Undeploy
    • Increase CPU
    • Decrease CPU
    • Increase RAM
    • Decrease RAM
    • Resize disk
    • Set hardware profile 
    • Instance
  • General:
    • Send email
  • Scaling group:
    • Start maintenance
    • End maintenance
    • Scale out
    • Scale in

 

14.2. Create an action plan

Before you create an action plan, consider the elements that you wish to automate with the action plan. Create VMs or scaling groups, fetch metrics, and create alarms and alerts.

To create an action plan:

  1. Go to Control → Action plans, and click the + add button 
  2. Enter the action plan details
  3. Add actions: 
    1. Click the + Add button
    2. Select a general action or select a VM or scaling group and a specific action type from the pulldown list
    3. Enter parameters as required 
    Consider the following constraints on actions
    • Maintenance block: You can create one complete maintenance block (start maintenance, action(s), and stop maintenance) and the maintenance block cannot contain any scaling actions
    • Scale in and/or scale out actions: You can only scale in and/or scale out at the end of the action plan but you can create the scaling action(s) in any order (e.g. scale in first, only scale in)
    • Email actions: You can perform an email action at any time, including after scaling actions
    • Platform constraints: For example, to create an instance, the VM must be deployed and powered off 
    • Hypervisor constraints: For example, when using hot reconfigure on ESXi, you cannot decrement CPU or RAM

Put the actions in run order using the arrow buttons. Delete actions as required using the trash can button to the left of the action name.

 Field

Description

Virtual machine

The name of the VM

Name

The name of the action plan

DescriptionA description of the action plan
Actions

See List of actions for action plans

Action parameters

See Action parameters table.
Note that you can request the JSON schema for each action plan entry type from the API.
See: https://wiki.abiquo.com/api/latest/ActionPlansResource.html#list-action-plan-entry-templates


Action parameters table

ActionParameters
Increase CPUvCPUs
Decrease CPUvCPUs. Not supported by hot-reconfigure. Check OS compatibility
Increase RAM
  • RAM
  • RAM unit of GB or MB
Decrease RAM
  • RAM. Not supported by hot-reconfigure. Check OS compatibility
  • RAM unit of GB or MB 
Resize disk
  • Amount
  • Disk unit of GB or MB
  • Selected disk
Instance
  • Name for Instance (clone) template. The platform will append the date to the name supplied
  • All disks or selected disks
Send email
  • Subject
  • Body
  • To (email addresses). Click the add + button to add an email address
  • Cc (copy to these addresses)
Set hardware profileSelect from the available hardware profiles



To run the action plan automatically, go to the Triggers tab and create an alert or schedule trigger. 




14.3. Run an action plan now

To run an action plan immediately to test it, do these steps:
  1. Go to Control → Action plans → Edit action plan 
  2. Click the Execute action plan button, which is beside the + add button to create a new action. 

Abiquo recommends that you run an action plan manually to test it before you create a trigger to run it automatically




14.4. Create a trigger for an action plan

The platform supports two types of triggers to run action plans: Alerts and Schedules.

To run your action plan based on metrics, select an existing alert with these steps:

  1. Go to Control → Action plans → edit action plan
  2. Go to Alerts
  3. Click the + Add button and select the Alert. For details about creating an alert, see Manage Alerts

To run your action plan automatically at selected dates and times, create a schedule trigger with these steps:

  1. Go to Control → Action plans → edit action plan
  2. Go to Schedules
  3. Enter the details of the schedule

  • To run the action plan at intervals of a fixed number of seconds within a set timeframe:
    1. Select an Interval schedule
    2. Enter the following parameters
      1. Interval seconds: the number of seconds from when the action plan excution starts to when it will start again
      2. Repeat count: the number of times to run the action plan. A value of 0 means repeat forever
      3. Start time: date and time
      4. End time: date and time
  1. After you create an interval schedule, the platform will display the execution count of how many times the action plan has run. If the repeat count is 0, the execution count is null
  • To run an action plan as specified using a Cron-type schedule, select an Advanced schedule and use the calendar selector.




14.5. Delete an action plan

If you delete an action plan, Abiquo will also delete the schedule associated with that action plan. 




14.6. Automate VM first boot with a configuration or script

To automate the configuration of your VM, edit the VM and on the Bootstrap tab, add a configuration or script that will run with cloud-init. Remember that your VM template must be compatible with cloud-init version 0.7.9 or above, and for Windows systems this will be a Cloudbase-Init template.

14.7. Add variables for the configuration of your VM

To add variables for use by cloud-init configurations or scripts, edit the VM and on the Variables tab, add the key and value for each variable that will be sent to the VM at deploy time. Remember that your VM template must be compatible with cloud-init version 0.7.9 or above, and for Windows system this will be a Cloudbase-Init template.

14.8. Configure Chef Recipes and Roles to automate VM configuration

Chef is an infrastructure automation product that uses configuration recipes. You can use Abiquo Chef Integration to deploy a VM that will then configure itself using Chef recipes and roles on Linux VMs.

The Chef tab will display if your tenant has a Chef configuration and your VM template is compatible with cloud-init.

To add Chef roles and recipes for your VM:

  1. Edit the VM and go to the Chef tab. 
  2. By default on this tab you can select roles. In order to select recipes too, select the Mark the "Select individual components" checkbox
  3. Select the appropriate roles and recipes in order to add to the VM's runlist. When the VM is deployed it will download the roles and recipes, and run them in order.
  4. Run a Chef-client recipe to keep your VM up to date with the Chef server.

To change the order of the runlist, click on the pencil button beside a role or recipe, then edit the order number, then click OK.

If you change the runlist after deploy, Abiquo will update the Chef server, and your Chef-client recipe can obtain these changes from the Chef server.

See also Abiquo Chef Integration Guide and Troubleshooting Abiquo Chef Integration in the Administrator's Guide.


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